The degree to which the results of studies can be generalized to other individuals, settings, or time.
Behaviors of subjects in a study that are affected by personal values or desires to PLEASE the experiment; reactivity.
Threat to internal validity where a change in the dependent variable is the result of ifferences in character of subjects before entering the study.
The degree to which one can conclude that the independent variable itself produced changes in the dependent variable.
Three purposes of nonexperimental designs.
Type of research where words are analyzed as data.
The three major ethical principles outlined in the Belmont Report.
respect for persons
_________ is the hallmark requirement for conducting ethical research.
International standard providing physicians with guidelines for biomedical research.
Declaration of Helsinki
An article based on only very common or uncommon elements of works with little concern for ersearch methods, design, or settings; traditional lit review.
Rigorous & systematic synthesis of research findings about a clinical problem.
Four broad concepts of a metaparadigm?
Nonexperimental designs used to gather data at one point in time.
Design used to gather data at more than one point in time.
Design where comparisons are made abou the same subjects at two or more points in time OR two or more measures.
Type of study in which more than one group of subjects is studied at the same time (also nonexperimental and cross-sectional design).
Cohort comparison studies
An experimental design in which some of the groups receive the intervention and others serve as controls. Some are measured before & after the intervention while others are measured only after the intervention.
Solomon four group design
Experimental designs have ______ groups; quasi-experimental designs have ______ groups.
Type of research that involves cost, politics, & culture in the delivery of healthcare.
Health services research
Type of research that links research findings to pt of care.
An experimental type of design where more than one variable can be manipulated (tests the effect of two or more variables).
Recruitment of participants based on word of mouth or referrals from other participants.
Snowball sampling (type of qualitative sampling)
Nonprobability sampling method used in qualitative studies to select a distinct group of individuals that either have lived the experience or have expertise in the event or experience being studied.
Subjects are individuals who participate in studies, typically those using a _______ design.