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Explain the blood flow through the heart
oxygenated blood enters the right atrium through the superior venacava then goes through the tricuspid valve
-calcium is so important because everyday your body uses it to regulate the heart rate and muscle contraction and chemical communications
bones most prone to fracturing
- - spine is the #1 bone prone to fracture
- -many crushing spine factures cause dowagers hump
- - 6-9 inches is the average height lost because of dowagers hump and being a senior
- -people with osteoporosis have 750,000 spine crushing fractures each year
- -hip is the #2 bone most fractures
- -300,000 hip fractures each year with osteoporosis patients
- - wrist is the #3 bone
- -250,000 wrist fractures each year with osteoporosis because of falls
- -the aveolar Ridge in the mouth is also affected by osteoporosis because it starts to break down and does not hold the teach very well
difference between normal and malignant cells
- Don’t respond to normal growth regulatory
- signals and proliferate rapidly. Cells continue to divide.
- Secrete their own growth factors to stimulate
- Tumor Angiogenesis Factor (TAF)- secretion that induces nearby vessels to produce new capillaries that grow into the tumor.
- Secrete enzymes that break down normal cell and tissue barriers- can metastasize.
- Proliferating tumor cells do not wear out and
- die after a specific number of cell divisions.
warning signs of cancer
- Change in bowel or bladder habits.
- A sore that does not heal.
- Unusual bleeding or discharge
- Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere.
- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing.
- Obvious change in a wart or mole.
- Nagging cough or hoarseness.
categories of cancer
- Carcinoma: cancer of the epithelial tissue.
- Skin, linings inside or outside of organs.
- Sarcomas: cancer of the connective tissue. AIDS
- patients and certain Jewish men. Very rare. Muscles, tendons, ligaments.
- Leukemia- cancers of the bone marrow: white
- blood cells affected. The best way to treat this is bone marrow transplants as
- opposed to other types of cancer. Identified by an excess of white blood cells
- in the body.
- Lymphomas: cancers of the lymphatic system. The lymph system cleans the body.
Complications of atherosclerosis
- 3 complications of atherosclerosis
- - embolism= moving clot of plaque
- - thrombus= stationary plaque in the arteries
- - aneurysm= artery wall that fills up with blood and bursts
What develops rheumatic heart disease
untreated strep throat. during the ages of 4-18 if strep goes untreated the bacteria can get into the developing heart and cause heart problems that will not manifest themselves till way later in life.
- HIV- human immunodeficiency virus- is a immunodeficient syndrome.
- HIV1 - 1st worlds, 10 year latency phase, nasty strain
- HIV2 - 3rd world, 25 year latency phase (however the average death between 5-10 years because of malnutrition and environmental factors in the 3rd world countries)
-HIV is found in 4 fluids of the body- blood, vaginal sections, seamen, breast milk
-HIV mother to child transmission through 3 ways- 3)the placenta, 1)birth (mixing of blood), 2)breast feeding (1 out of 10 infants contract the virus through breast feeding)
- - Actions that create situations of risk for HIV-
- 1) unprotected sex
- 2) contaminated needles especially from drug users
- 3) blood transfusions (1 person out of 660,000 blood transfusions and organ transplants get HIV)
- 3 things that qualify someone as an aids patient
- 1)- HIV positive
- 2) white blood cell count is below 200 (a healthy range is 800-1200. over 1200 is a sign of infection or cancer) at 500 quartined because cell mediated immune system is shut down
- 3) opportunistic disease; top 20 are = a) pneumonia- pneumocystis carinii - 80% of aids patients get this b) cancer- kaposis sarcoma- cancer of the circulatory system (blood cancer) which creates adhesions on the body- 20% of aids patients get this. c) thrush- later all patients will develop with d) wasting is what patients will develop later in the sickness.
- - Bacterial
- - from chlamydiae bacteria- forms inclusion bodies- fastest growing and most common STD in the U.S because it is most often asymptomatic in women. In men they usually have some symptoms. easy to treat and cure with an antibiotic.
- - Bacterial
- aka the clap- same as chlamydia with same signs and symptoms just different bacteria. It occurs less than chlamydia because the signs and symptoms are not usually asymptomatic and people get it treated before its spreads. can be cured and treated with antibiotics.
- primary stage- sore develops where the bacteria enters the body called a Chancre which does not hurt that much.
- secondary stage- chancre disappears and individual experiences flu like symptoms and some develop a rash on the palms of the hands and base of the feet and hair loss.
- latent stage- asymptomatic- 50% stay in the stage the rest of their lives and the rest of the 50% move to the late stage syphilis.
- Late stage- individual develops tumor like sores all over their body called gummans. 10% may develop cardio syphilis which is when the bacteria enters the heart. 12-15% develop neuro-syphilis which is the bacteria moving in the nervous system- it moves into the brain and causes individual to go mad.
Pelvis Inflammatory Disease (PID)
- causes scar tissue in tubes and causes ectopic pregnancies which can cause a women to need a hysterectomy. 40% of PID are from untreated chlamydia and gonorrhea. only in women. It not treatable with antibiotics.
- - viral
- -herpes simplex 1= labial cold sores (not an STD). you are either a carrier or not. by puberty you know if you are a carrier or not. herpes
- simplex 2- genital(this is the only STD). wherever virus enter the body there will be red painful bumps on the body that then turns into a sore. as soon as the bumps erupt it triggers the immune system.
- the virus has the ability to hid in a nerve cell where they immune system cannot find it. even in herpes simplex two is contracted at the mouth it will move down into the genital area after its first outbreak. there is no cure. someone is most at risk if they have an open sore and are having sex with someone who is having a eruption of herpes 2.
only transferred from body to body contract and starts to develop dark spots that fuse together to form a wart wherever the virus entered the body. The wart looks different from a body wart, it is white and raised and is easily irritated. Gotten rid of the same way as body warts (burned or freezed) but they come back and get it moved over and over again. HPV- is the most dangerous genital wart.
are parasitic- can pick up anywhere like toilet or towel. women have a higher chance of getting this because they always sit while going the bathroom. they like dark moist areas.
30 day life cycle- crab like body, gray in color, and can be seen with the naked eye- they bite the host and suck with makes them a deep red color. they lay eggs and attach it to the hair. if you remove the pubic hair that will remove all the eggs. they cause itching.
from the spider family. the burro in the skin. they bite and suck blood from the host. can be seen from the naked eye.
narrowing of the pulmonary artery
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the aorta artery usually where the aorta is descending
Patent ductus arteriousus
when the ductus arteriosus not close after a baby takes its first breath and starts causing some congestion in the heart because of excess oxygen in the heart. this will cause a mumur in the heart
opening between the two atrium in a baby's heart
vessel that is connected to the pulmonary artery in an infacts heart
ventricular septal defect
whole in the heart between the two ventricles when the septum between the two ventricles has not fully formed. most common defect. It commonly fixes its self most of the time. doctors will wait a long time before going in and performing surgery.
transposition of the great vessels
condition of the heart being backwards. the 2 great vessels (pulmonary and aorta) do not cross over each other they are side by side.
hypoplastic left heart syndrome
the right side of the heart is stronger than the left which is serious because the left side needs more strength to pump blood to the whole body.
tetralogy of fallot
when there are a combination of 3 or more congenital defects. the most common 3 are: hypoplastic left heart syndrome, transposition of the great vessels, pulmonary stenosis.
heart disease treatmnet
- nitroglisoran, digitalis, beta blockers= slow down pumping of the heart,balloon tip or laser angioplasty or motorized drill that drills off plaque and insert stentsheart
- bypass- take clean piece of vessel from the leg and then insert the clean vessel in the heart. up to 8 bypasses surgeries are allowed at most and it costs 20,000 per
- heart transplant- 250,000 dollars + hospital stay and meds
- angioplasty surgery- 2 to 3 hours- 8000 dollars
is a new emerging illness. characterized by fatigue, neurological problems and flu like symptoms and the degree of fatigue depends on the individuals.
- -was considered depression for a long time or it was from mono.
- - it is NOT depression because cortisol levels are very low in CFS patients and very high in patients with depression. CFS patients also over estimate what there energy level is and depression patients underestimate. Exercise helps patients with depression but with CFS it can cause greater fatigue
seasonal affective disorder
what legitimizes a disease
- 1) no cause (virus or microorganism)
- 2) if there are observable markers
- 3) level of research conducted on the illness-- because so many people have similar symptoms
tumor size, nodes effective? metastasizes
- high blood pressure= the silent killer.
- you can have this for years and not know it and it can be causing all types of damage. when the heart is having to pump fast and the speed of the blood rushing through the heart can cause tears in the arteries which then plaque starts to build up in those tears. only 2/3 who have hypertension have be diagnosed.
- - 120/80 or 120/60 are healthy blood pressures.
- top number= systolic pressure= pressure of the blood against the vessels walls when the
- ventricles contractdiastolic= bottom number= pressure of the blood on the vessel walls when the ventricles are relaxed
- -only 50% of HP are sodium sensitive
cholesterol- HDL & LDL
- -cholesterol- get it from animal products HDL= good cholesterol which can knock down plaque on the walls
- -LDL= bad cholesterol
- -health cholesterol range is 200 or less, 200-240= border line, more than 240 is high-blood pressure
treatments of SAD
- If diagnosed with SAD there are 3 different kinds of treatments depending on how severe the depression is in the winter.
- 1) relocate- for severe to moderate depression
- 2) take a sunny vacation in the winter (moderate to mild)- because it take a month to keep mood of decreasing again
- 3) photo therapy- "light boxes"= which is 20,000 lux of lights= amplifying a classroom light by 12 times. the individual will look into the light boxes for about 5-20 minutes and will get a increase amount of light exposure that will cause the right stimulation. within a week of exposure the winter blues (SAD) will go away. this is affect on anyone who has this disorder.
- 1 sq foot. of light= 1 lux
valve and chambers of the heart
look at heart worksheet
2 diseases that are opportunistic of AIDS
common causes of SAD
- seasonal affective disorder
- -wake up- chemical reaction that occurs every time we go from dark to light. light hits the retina and retina sends a message to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) which is in the brain and is responsible for any cycles that we go through life (like sleep cycles, periods, puberty, menopause). the SCN is stimulated and sends a message to the pineal gland which sends a message to decrease melatonin levels which then sends a message that affects our body temperature to increase
- -normal-sun up= melatonin down= body temp.
- -in SAD- sun down= melatonin up= body temp. down
- - In SAD the during the winter or on very cloudy days when someone wakes up an individuals melatonin does not go down and therefore their body pressure does not drop. this cause people with SAD, depression which is the greatest sign and symptom. other signs and symptoms are fatigue, withdraw socially, do not want to be active, cant concentrate or focus, anxiety. 34 million people have SAD and 83% of the 34 mil are women between the ages of 20-40
Heart Attacks- risk factors- can and cannot change
- 1) risks that cannot be changes= genetics, age, gender, race
- 2) primary risk factors (can change. #1 risks)=-smoking- risk is 2x more than those who do not smoke. they have less than an 1 for help when having a heart attack.
- -lack of exercise (sedentary life) 15% of Americans exercise 3-4 days a week. 60% Americans say they are moderate active and 25% are completely inactive.
- 3) Secondary factors
- -stress-nutrition- watch amount of caffeine, 20 % of something
heart attack. 1/2 of heart attack deaths occur in the first 3 to 4 hours of the heart attack symptoms. 80% of heart attack survivors are back at work in 3 months.
signs & symptoms= , feeling of ingestion (this is the #1 sign that is ignored) tingling or numbness of the left arm, chest pain (like an elephant is standing on their chest), weakness, fatigue, double vision, hear problems for a minute, incontinence, nausea, headaches
caused by embolism, thrombus, and aneurysm
men have more heart attacks than women but women die from heart attacks more often than men. because women's signs or symptoms are not as severe/noticeable as they are in men.
it is ischemia which is when there is a lack of oxygen at the heart which causes pain. chronic condition that occurs after there has been some type of damage to the heart. medication can be given to slow the heart down. anxiety is the only thing that one can lose control of slowing down the heart.
Atherosclerosis vs arterosclerosis
- -arteriosclerosis= hardening of the artery. all kinds of disease fall under this category of this heart disease.
- The most common kind is atherosclerosis which is a hardening of the arteries from fat. causes of this disease are plaque build up in the lumen (opening of the artery) of the artery.