A&P CV and Respiratory System.txt

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bbhagan
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280481
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A&P CV and Respiratory System.txt
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2014-08-12 08:36:11
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Cardiovascular Respiratory
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Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. COPD
    A group of diseases characterized by irreversible airway obstruction.
  2. Emphysema
    A type of COPD characterized by destruction of alveolar walls
  3. Chronic Bronchitis
    A type of COPD characterized by a productive cough
  4. Asthma
    A condition characterized by airway inflammation and intermittent bronchoconstriction in response to triggers
  5. Sinusitis
    An infection of the paranasal sinuses
  6. Pharyngitis
    An infection of the throat
  7. Allerigic Rhinitis
    Nasal congestion triggered by exposure to allergens
  8. Pneumonia
    An infection of the lung tissue
  9. Pneumothorax
    When air gets trapped between the chest wall and the outer surface of the lung
  10. Pleural Effusion
    When fluid collects between the chest wall and the outer surface of the lungs
  11. Hemothorax
    When blood collects between the chest wall and the outer surface of the lung
  12. Cystic fibrosis
    A genetic defect that results in excessively thick mucus production
  13. Nasal polyps
    Non-cancerous growths inside the nasal cavity that may be related to chronic inflammation
  14. Atelectasis
    A condition where the alveoli are either partially or totally collapsed
  15. The tissue that divides the left and right side of the heart
    Septum
  16. Considered to be the pacemaker of the heart
    SA or Sinoatrial node
  17. The type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
    Artery
  18. The type of blood vessel that returns blood to the heart
    Vein
  19. The type of blood vessel that allows the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the tissues and blood stream
    Capillary
  20. The color you would expect oxygenated blood to be
    Bright red
  21. The color you would expect deoxygenated blood to be?
    Dark red - so dark it looks blue
  22. The serous membrane that surrounds the heart
    Pericaridium
  23. The inner lining of the heart
    Endocardium
  24. The blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs
    Pulmonary artery
  25. The blood vessel that returns blood from the lungs to the heart
    Pulmonary vein
  26. The blood vessel that returns blood from the body to the heart
    Vena Cava
  27. PTCA
    • Percutaneous - through the skin
    • Transluminal - inside the artery
    • Cornary - Type of artery
    • Angioplasty - surgical repair of the vessel
  28. The chamber of the heart that the vena cava attaches to
    Right atrium
  29. The chamber of the heart that the aorta attaches to
    Left ventricle
  30. The chamber of the heart that pulmonary veins attach to
    Left atrium
  31. The of blood vessel that contains valves
    Veins
  32. The upper chambers of the heart
    Atrium
  33. The lower chambers of the heart
    Ventricles
  34. This valve sits between the left atrium and left ventricle
    bicuspid or mitral valve
  35. This valve sits between the right atrium and the right ventricle
    tricuspid
  36. These arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
    Coronary arteries
  37. The phase of the cardiac cycle where the heart contracts
    Systole
  38. The phase of the cardiac cycle where the heart is at rest
    Diastole
  39. A condition where the heart is unable to pump efficiently
    Heart Failure - CHF
  40. Heart tissue death due to insufficient blood supply
    Myocardial infarction - Heart attack
  41. A narrow valve
    Valuvular stenosis
  42. A leaky valve
    valvular insufficiency
  43. Hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the presence of fatty plaques inside
    Atherosclerosis - only in coronary
  44. A type of arrhythmia characterized by erratic uncoordinated contractions
    Flutter
  45. A type of arrhythmia characterized by rapid but coordinated contractions, sometimes reaching rates of 300 beats/minute
    Fibrillation
  46. An irregular heart beat
    Arrhythmia or dysrhythmia
  47. The liquid portion of the blood
    Plasma
  48. A red blood cell
    Erythrocyte
  49. A white blood cell
    Leukocyte
  50. This type of leukocyte produces antibodies
    Lymphocyte
  51. This type of leukocyte secretes heparin
    Basophil
  52. This type of leukocyte is involved in parasitic infections
    Eosinophil
  53. This type of leukocyte performs phagocytosis
    Neutrophil
  54. This type of cell helps with blood clotting
    Thrombocyte
  55. This type of cell carries oxygen
    Erythrocyte
  56. A deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin
    Anemia
  57. Increased numbers of white blood cells, often related to infection
    • Leukocytosis
    • leuko - white
    • cyte - cell
    • osis - abnormal condition of
  58. An inherited disease characterized by impaired blood clotting
    hemophilia
  59. A deficiency of platelets
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • thrombo - clot forming
    • cyto - cell
    • penia - abnormal deficiency
  60. A deficiency of white blood cells
    • Leukopenia
    • leuko - white
    • penia - abnormal deficiency
  61. When a chunk of a blood clot breaks loose and is carried through the circulation
    Embolus
  62. A blood clot
    Thrombus
  63. This blood type is the universal donor
    O
  64. This blood type is the universal recipient
    AB
  65. Type A blood has this/these antibodies in its plasma
    B
  66. Type B blood has this/these antibodies in its plasma
    A
  67. Type O blood has this/these antibodies in its plasma
    A & B
  68. List three substances that blood transports
    • Gas (oxygen & carbon dioxide)
    • Nutrients (glucose, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water)
    • Hormones
    • Platelets (clotting protein and fibrinogen)
  69. List 2 possible causes of anemia
    • low iron
    • blood loss
    • cancer
  70. The airway that extends from the layrynx to the bronchi
    Trachea
  71. The membrane that surrounds the lungs, decreasing the friction of breathing
    Pleura
  72. Very small airways
    Bronchioles
  73. The air-sacs at the terminal ends of the airways
    Alveoli
  74. The throat
    Pharynx
  75. Warms and moistens inhaled air; detects smell
    Nasal Cavity
  76. The primary muscle of breathing
    Diaphragm
  77. The voice box
    Larynx
  78. The large airways that branch off of the trachea
    Bronchi
  79. A flap of cartilage that closes off the airways during swallowing
    Epiglottis
  80. Three scroll-like bones that split inhaled air into several smaller channels of turbulent flow
    Turbinates
  81. The portion of the pharynx connected to the nose and containing the adenoids
    Nasopharynx
  82. The portion of the pharynx connected to the mouth
    Oropharynx
  83. The portong of the nasal cavity responsible for detecting smells
    Olfactory region
  84. The portion of the nasal cavatity that contains coarse hairs that filter out particles
    Vestibular region
  85. The process of moving air in and out of the lungs
    Ventilation
  86. The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide with the bloodstream
    Respiration
  87. The process where oxygenated blood exchanges gasses with the tissues
    Cellular respiration
  88. The point where the trachea splits or bifucates, to form the bronchi
    Carina
  89. The phospholipid that lowers the surface tension of the alveoli, preventing them from collapsing
    Surfactant
  90. Normally, breathing rate is detemined by the level of _______ in the blood
    Carbon dioxide
  91. How does the mucociliary elevator/escalator prevent foreign material from getting into the lungs
    Mucus secreted in the bronchi, bronchioles and nose capture debris and are swept up towards the throat by CILIATED EPITHELIUM
  92. Which phase of breathing is considered active
    Inhalation
  93. Which phase of breathing is considered passive
    Exhalation
  94. Explain the process of inhalation
    Diaphram goes down into the abdominal cavity, ribs expand and elevate
  95. Explain the process of exhalation
    Diaphram returns to the thorasic region and ribs return to their relaxed position
  96. The function of red blood cells
    to carry oxygen and wast products
  97. The inner lining of the heart is called...
    Endocardium
  98. Function of platelets
    Help the blood to clot
  99. Your patient has type O blood. What antigens does this person have in his plasma
    None
  100. Your patient has type A blood. What Antibodies will be present on his RBCs
    B
  101. The ability to resist infection and disease
    Immunity
  102. Your patient has type AB blood. What antibodies will be present on his RBCs
    None
  103. Microscopic organisms that cause disease
    Pathogens
  104. The tissue that divides the left and right sides of the heart
    Septum
  105. The serous membrane that surrounds the heart
    Epicardium
  106. Function of white blood cells
    Immunity of the body
  107. Another name for platelets
    Thrombocytes
  108. Which type of blood vessel allows the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the tissues and the blood stream
    Capillary
  109. Neutrophil
    Performs phagocytosis
  110. Hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the presence of fatty plaques
    Atherosclerosis
  111. Basophil
    secretes heparin
  112. Lymphocyte
    produces antibodies
  113. Thrombocyte
    helps blood with clotting
  114. Erythrocyte
    carries oxygen
  115. Eosinophil
    involved in parasitic infections
  116. A condition where the heart is unable to pump efficiently
    Myocardial infarction
  117. The phase of the cardiac cycle where the heart is at rest
    diastole
  118. hemophilia
    an inherited disease characterized by impaired blood clotting
  119. Which blood vessel returns blood from the lungs to the heart
    Pulmonary vein
  120. Another name for red blood cells
    Erythrocyte
  121. Another name for white blood cells
    Leukocyte
  122. Which blood vessel carries blood from the heart to the lungs
    Pulmonary artery
  123. Which blood vessel returns blood from the body to the heart
    Vena Cava
  124. which chamber of the heart does the vena cava attach to
    Right Atrium
  125. Pacemaker of the heart
    SA or Sinoatrial Node
  126. Leukopenia
    A deficiency of white blood cells
  127. Delivers oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
    Coronary arteries
  128. A narrow valve
    valvular stenosis
  129. A leaky valve
    valvular insufficiency
  130. Heart tissue death due to insufficient blood supply
    Myocardial infarction

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