Nav GK

Card Set Information

Nav GK
2014-09-23 16:59:57

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  1. 1. What is the minimum weather required at our destination?
    +-1hr ETA above lowest approach mins or PWC. AETC requires ceiling and vis. Exception at home field. Can file with wx below mins if 2 or more suitable alternates exist. Fuel to most distant.
  2. 2. Can TEMPO conditions restrict our filing to destination?
    No but an alternate may be required
  3. 3. When do I need an Alternate ?
    Worst WX tempo or prevailing +/-1hr ETA does not permit a VFR descent and is < 2000/3, No weather reporting capability, Radar only, unmonitored navaid, lowest approach mins >=1500/3, winds out of limits, RVSM required. Don‘t need at home if IP, ETE+2hrs is 1500/3. Departure and destination field is AETC field. Also don‘t need at any field if above conditions are met but the weather is at least 1500/3 and 2 precision approaches are available.
  4. 4. What is the WX required for an alternate?
    Worst WX ETA+- 1hr is at least 500/2 or published visibility minima whichever is greater . Do not qualify if radar is required, GPS only, A/NA, winds out of limits, RVSM required.
  5. 5. How does TEMPO conditions restrict alternate filing ?
    Will not affect if due to Thunderstorms or rain/snow showers
  6. 6. Can winds be out of limits at destination? At our Alternate?
    Yes (but alternate required), No
  7. 7. What are filing restrictions when destination is Radar only?
    Class A file to nearest non radar fix. Otherwise need to be able to fly without radar to within 25nm of airfield
  8. 8. Can we file IFR to a destination without IAP?
    No. Can file IFR to a point that has VMC or that has IAP that can get you below WX and proceed VFR to destination
  9. 9. What kind of WX would we need to file to destination without IAP?
  10. 10. If destination does not have IAP do we need an Alternate?
    No because you would need VFR WX
  11. 11. What would disqualify an airfield as an Alternate if weather would not allow VFR descent from IFR MEA and VFR approach and landing +/- 1 hour of ETA?
    A/NA, Unmonitored Navaid, GPS only, radar required, no weather reporting capability, no published approach, or weather/winds out of limits.
  12. 12. Can you file to a A/NA field as the destination?
    Yes- but not as an alternate
  13. 13. What does A/NA mean?
    Alternate mins not authorized due to unmonitored Navaid or no WX reporting.
  14. 14. Does the trouble A ever apply to us?
    • If you look at the front portion of an approach plate where the Trouble A restrictions are you will see the following note:
    • 11-202 Vol 3 states ?the FLIP A designation (without NA) signifies that non-standard alternate minimums are published for that runway. While non-standard alternate minimums do not apply to USAF aircraft, there may be notes associated with them that do. Pilots must check for such notes whenever the A designation is shown.
  15. 15. What is the minimum WX you can takeoff with?
    Wx mins for landing/PWC
  16. 16. How to apply VFR descent from IFR MEA?
  17. 17. What is the minimum WX you need to file VFR?
    1500 /3sm +- 1 hr, but AETC requires 3000AGL for lowest point-to-point VFR altitude
  18. 18. If filing an alternate , how do I adjust our fuel requirements?
    If filing based on vis only need fuel for approach and missed approach at destination, go to alternate with fuel reserves. If filing based on ceiling and vis fuel is not required for approach and missed approach at destination.
  19. 19. Can you use a field designated as OBO as Alternate?
  20. 20. When can we use a P-designated field?
    • Joint use or approved by Wg/CC ie LOA. Can use as an alternate if no suitable military field, Interceptor aircraft, Emergency:
    • JAMIE Also helicopter of C-coded aircraft (C-130, C-17)
  21. 21. Can I use a Radar Only field as an alternate?
    Yes if weather allows for VFR descent from IFR MEA and VFR approach and landing ETA +/- 1 hour.
  22. 22. Can you practice instrument approaches at P-designated field with no LOA or Joint Use?
    Yes. However (11-2T) does not let you do touch and goes.
  23. 23. When do you have to Open/Close flight plans?
    VFR to-from civilian fields
  24. 24. When do we have to file an IFR flight plan?
    WX not VFR, Class A, Fed Airways, NIght and flying Instrument Approaches
  25. 25. Can we fly without a flight plan?
  26. 26. What WX is required at alternate without IAP?
    +-1hr allow VFR descent from IFR altitude to VFR approach and land
  27. 27. What are authorized sources to obtain wx:?
    Military base weather, OWS, a qualified FAA forecaster or flight weather service briefer, or nearest FSS. For local sorties, aircrew may obtain current weather and forecast from a servicing OWS Internet source or by telephone or fax from the above listed sources.
  28. 28. Do you always need an IFR clearance to fly IFR?
    No. Not needed for uncontrolled airspace because pilot is clearance authority
  29. 29. How much reserve fuel do you need?
    Total flight time of 10% (up to 45 min max) or 20 minutes, whichever is greater
  30. 30. How is the fuel reserve computed?
    Max endurance at 10,000 ft
  31. 31. Is the date in block 1 on the DD 175 a local or Zulu date?
  32. 32. What does the G in BE 40/G mean?
    GPS equipped
  33. 33. The TAS that we file is for what segment?
    TAS to be maintained at the initial cruising altitude/FL.
  34. 34. If you file a VFR flight plan do you have to specify TAS?
    No. Not for local VFR flights.
  35. 35. What coordination must you do if you anticipate a delayed takeoff?
    Pilots must advise Base Ops or the Tie-in flight service station serving the departure stop over, or enroute delay airport when the actual departure time will be delayed one hour or more beyond the filed proposed departure time and provide an updated departure time.
  36. 36. What is the last fix you enter on a VFR flight plan?
    Point from which the final leg to the destination is begun
  37. 37. What is the last fix you enter on a IFR flight plan?
    Either: The identifier of the nearest IAF, Navigational Aid, first point of intended landing or published fix which most clearly establishes the route of flight to the destination or the coded STAR. For composite flight plans is the fix/facility at which the transition is made
  38. 38. How would you file an Alternate required for a stop over flight plan?
    ex. (3+30 SKF 0+30). 3+30 is fuel on board at stop over, SKF 0+30 is alternate and ETE.
  39. 39. For VFR flight plans what does the ETE mean?
    The time from take-off to a position over the destination airport, including known or pre-planned enroute delays (practice landings etc.)
  40. 40. For IFR flight plans what does the ETE mean?
    The time from take-off or departure from a Terminal or Special Use airspace enroute delay location to the last fix shown in the ROUTE OF FLIGHT exclusive of planned enroute delays.
  41. 41 . How do you specify that you need Servicing at your out base?
    XXX- S
  42. 42. What does the FUEL ON BOARD figure mean?
    Total time that an aircraft can stay aloft while flying the planned profile with the fuel available at initial takeoff.
  43. 43. If you require to file an Alternate for your stop-over and your final destination, how do you file it?
    Item 15 is the alternate for the first point of intended landing. For other stops include the alternate and ETE on the route of flight.
  44. 44. What is the ETE TO ALTERNATE mean?
    Time required to fly from original destination to the alternate airport, based on flight at the last cruising altitude.
  45. 45. How much time prior to departure do you have to file the flight plan?
    At least 30 minutes (1hr in some areas)
  46. 46. A person will not act as a crewmember while under the influence of alcohol or its after effects and shall not consume alcoholic beverages during the ____ hr period prior to takeoff.
    12 hrs
  47. 47. What does it mean if a VOR is labeled VORw in the IFR supp or the frequency is underlined on an enroute or sectional chart?
    No voice capability
  48. 48. The maximum error of an altimeter at a known check point is?
    75 ft
  49. 49. When checking the VOR/TACAN at a designated ground checkpoint, the maximum allowable CDI error is?
  50. 1. What is the minimum climb gradient req for IFR dept if none is published?
    200 ft / nm
  51. 2. What are the authorized IFR departure methods:
    Diverse departure, IFR Departure Procedure (ODP), Visual Climb Over the Airport, Standard Instrument Departure, specific ATC departure instructions (radar vectors), MAJCOM developed/approved
  52. 3. What is a Diverse Departure?
    Climb 400 AGL on rwy hdg then turn direct to first point maintaining 200ft/nm
  53. 4. When can we fly a diverse departure?
    If the runway has no obstacles (other than low, close-in obstacles) that penetrate the 40:1 OCS, no published IFR departure procedure, and it does not state ?Diverse Departure Not Authorized.
  54. 5. How high does AF/Army/Navy/Civil fields expect you to be at departure end:
    AF/Navy 0 ft unless otherwise published, Army/Civil 35ft
  55. 1. Where do you find the format for flight plan changes?
    Back cover IFR sup
  56. 2. Where do you find the format for PIREPS?
  57. 3. Where do you find the format for position reports?
    Back cover IFR sup and FIH
  58. 4. What is the position reporting symbol on enroute charts?
  59. 5. What is the solid vs hollow triangle?
    Solid, compulsory, hollow non-compulsory
  60. 6. Under additional reports, which reports (radio calls) are required all the time?
    Vacating assigned altitude , climbs/descents less than 500 fpm, missed approach, change TAS airspeed by 5% or 10 KIAS whichever is greater, loss of any navigation capability, safety, entering holding, departing holding and un-forecast wx
  61. 7. What additional reports are required only when not in radar contact?
    FAF, OM, estimate change of 3 minutes and un forecast wx
  62. 8. What is the difference between MEA and MOCA on a published airway?
    MEA guarantees obstacle clearance and Navaid reception. MOCA only guarantees obstacle clearance.
  63. 9. When and how can you make changes to flight plan after airborne?
    Not penetrating an ADIZ, ATC approval and FSS notified
  64. 10. Why do we need to contact FSS with our takeoff time and send arrival messages when departing civilian fields?
    To ensure proper flight following and that aircraft do not arrive unannounced at destination
  65. 11. Do you have to lead turns in airways?
    Yes, on Victor below 18 000 ft. If higher than 290 TAS will exceed protected airspace. (AIM)
  66. 12. What is the width of a Victor Route?
    4nm to each side.
  67. 13. What are changeover points ?
    Used to avoid loss of navigation aids and making sure a/c flying in the same area are using the same navaid
  68. 14. A report to ATC without specific ATC request when unable to climb/descend at a rate of at least ___
    500 fpm
  69. 15. Do not exceed ___ KIAS below 10,000 ft, do not exceed ___ KIAS at or below ____ft above the surface within 4NM of a primary airport of a Class C or D airspace or underlying Class B airspace unless authorized or required by ATC or min safe maneuvering TO speed
    250, 200 , 2,500
  70. 16. (Loss of cabin pressure) Pilots must initiate immediate descent to the lowest practical altitude, preferably below ___ ft, but in no case allow cabin altitude to remain above ____ ft without functional pressure suits.
    18,000 ft, 25,000 ft
  71. 17. What are the oxygen requirements above FL 350 is only one pilot is in the seat?
    Oxygen mask must be on
  72. 18. Supplemental oxygen for aircrew is required if the cabin altitude exceeds _____ ft
    10,000 ft
  73. 19. Oxygen must be provided for occupants when a flight exceeds ____ hrs duration between ___ft and ____ ft.
    3hrs, 10,000 ft, 13,000ft
  74. 20. ___ ft shall not be exceeded in unpressurized aircraft with occupants on board who do not have oxygen.
    13,000 ft
  75. 21. Minimum altitude for VFR Point to point navigation?
    3000 ft
  76. 22. How much ice and where can you have before takeoff?
    The PIC will not takeoff with ice, snow or frost adhering to the wings, control surfaces, propellers, engine inlets, or other critical surfaces of the aircraft. A thin coating of frost is permitted on the fuselage, provided the letters and paint lines are still visible. (note: The TO 1T-1A-1 requires that all snow, ice, or frost must be removed before flight).
  77. 23. What is OROCA?
    An off route altitude which provides obstruction clearance with a 1000 ft buffer in non mountainous terrain and 2000 ft buffer in designated mountainous terrain within the US. It may not provide signal coverage from Navaids or ATC. It is found on the Low IFR charts in each quadrant
  78. 24. What is ORTCA?
    Off Route Terrain Clearance altitude, that provides terrain clearance with a 3,000 ft buffer from terrain. This altitude may not provide signal coverage from Navaids or ATC. It is used in enroute charts covering those areas outside the US
  79. 25. What do you squawk during NORDO?
  80. 26. You should notify ATC if your TAS varies by more than____.
    10kts or 5% whichever is greater from filed
  81. 27. When does station passage occur in a VOR, TACAN?
    VOR first positive change of the TO-FROM to FROM. TACAN when range indicator stops decreasing.
  82. 28. Do the station identifiers in the T-1 HSI count for monitoring NAVAID‘s?
    Only for VOR stations. You must still monitor the NAVAID aurally for TACANs and localizers.
  83. 1. Do not turn after takeoff, touch and go, or low approach until ____ ft above the ground, safe___ and past ____unless; specifically cleared by the controlling agency, safety dictates otherwise, required by local procedures, required by published departure procedure (the 400 ft restriction does not apply to closed patterns)
    400 ft AGL, airspeed, departure end of the runway
  84. 2. Pilots should report Gear Down during any approach to an airport prior to ______.
    Crossing the runway threshold
  85. 3. Can I start an enroute descent or approach if the weather is reported below mins?
  86. 4. Can I continue an approach if the weather is reported below mins?
  87. 5. Does being cleared for a Visual Approach authorize you to fly an overhead traffic pattern?
  88. 6. What are the minimum weather requirements for a Contact approach?
    1 mile and clear of clouds
  89. 7. On a 3 bar VASI which bars do you use?
    The 2 closest bars unless you are a 747 or C5
  90. 8. What color is the airport beacon of a civilian and military airfield?
    civilian: white and green, military white-white-green
  91. 9. What is the primary method of determining visibility WX mins for an approach?
    RVR. PV may be used if RVR unavailable
  92. 1. What is the max descent rate for an approach to be considered straight -in?
  93. 2. What is the maximum displacement for an approach to be considered straight in?
    30 deg from runway heading
  94. 3. If VASI‘s are Notamed out of service, must I increase approach minimums?
  95. 4. When must you go missed approach?
    Runway environment not in sight (the runway threshold or approved lighting aids or other markings identifiable with the runway), unable to make a safe landing, directed by the controlling agency (RUT)
  96. 5. What are the criteria for a contact approach?
    IFR procedure, pilot must accept, 1 mile and clear of clouds
  97. 6. What are the criteria for a visual approach?
    IFR procedure, VMC conditions, ATC can offer, pilot must accept, ATC may continue to provide vectors, proceed to the FAF for landing runway, have runway or preceding traffic in sight, radar service terminated when changed to tower.
  98. 7. What kind of Obstacle clearance does an MSA altitude provide?
    1000 within 25 nm
  99. 8. What kind of obstacle clearance does Emergency Safe Altitude provide?
    1000/2000 mountainous within 100 nm
  100. 9. The T-1 is what category for instrument approaches?
  101. 10. How is touchdown zone elevation determined?
    The highest point in the first 3000‘ of the landing runway
  102. 11. What does the Z in ILS Z Rwy 31C mean?
    If more than one approach with the same course guidance on final exists then they are named starting with the end of the alphabet backwards.
  103. 12. What is the climb out gradient required on a missed approach?
    200ft/nm (11-202V3)
  104. 13. How is airport elevation determined?
    The highest point on any usable landing surface
  105. 13. How do you know which configuration will guarantee 200ft/nm for missed approaches?
    Flying Vac approach climb speed which is Vref + 22 guarantees 200 ft/nm single engine (with minimum of 3.3 COF). Two engine capability exceeds that.
  106. 14. What is the max teardrop for a PT?
    30 degrees
  107. 15. When do you not fly a PT?
    Straight in, No PT routing, Radar vec, Timed approached, established in co-located holding.
  108. 16. Rules for entering and teardrop a low altitude PT
    Within 70 deg, turn outbound to ward the maneuvering side to parallel the inbound procedure turn course. Not within 70 , Turn outbound in the shorter direction to parallel or intercept the inbound course Teardrop, teardrop course will be displaced a max of 30 deg from the published procedure turn course on the maneuvering side
  109. 17. When can you use normal lead points entering a PT?
    If your heading is within 90 deg of the outbound procedure turn course.
  110. 18. What requirement do you have if the entry turn on a PT puts you on the non-maneuvering side?
    If entry places you on non-maneuvering side attempt to intercept procedure turn course outbound. If the procedure turn course is intercepted outbound, maintain course for the remainder of the outbound leg, then turn toward the maneuvering side to reverse course.
  111. 19. How much and when you should time outbound for PT?
    To remain within distance, Time outbound abeam fix. If unable to determine, start timing after completion of outbound turn.
  112. 20. When can you descend on a PT after the IAF?
    When outbound abeam the fix or after completing the outbound turn. Descend from the PT altitude when established inbound
  113. 21. How much timing for 45/180?
    1 min cat A,B and 1+15 sec cat C,D and E . Start timing upon initiating the 45 deg turn.
  114. 22. What is the max airspeed we can use for a procedure turn ?
    250 KIAS
  115. 23. What speed should we use during a procedure turn maneuver?
    180 KIAS
  116. 24. How much distance does a 45/180, 80,260 maneuver require?
    3*TR+2, 3*TR
  117. 25. When should you not execute a PT?
    SNERT: Straight in, NoPt course, Established in holding (holding course same as PT course and cleared for approach), Radar vectors, Timed approaches (these are in progress when you are established in a holding pattern and given time to depart the FAF inbound)
  118. 26. Are Hi-IAP feeder routings considered segments of the approach? Low IAP?
  119. 27. On a Non DME approach, If below the IAF altitude upon arriving at the IAF, time ___ sec for
    every 1000ft below IAF altitude prior to starting descent 15 sec
  120. 28. What should you do if you arrive at the IAF on a Non-DME approach above the IAF altitude?
    Descend to it before starting the approach via a request for a holding pattern
  121. 29. What descent gradient on a High Altitude teardrop approach will ensure you remain within protected airspace?
    800-1000 ft/nm (8-10 deg)
  122. 30. When a penetration turn altitude is not published for a Non-Dme teardrop approach, start the turn after ____ ?
    After descending ½ the total altitude between the IAF and FAF altitudes
  123. 31. If a penetration turn altitude is depicted, do not descend below this altitude until____?
    You are established on the inbound segment of the published approach procedure
  124. 32. On a Radial High altitude approach, if your heading is within 90 deg of the approach course are you required to overfly the IAF?
    No. You can lead the turn
  125. 33. If you are established in a holding pattern and the IAF is located on an arc or a radial at a distance less than required for a normal lead point , can you turn early to intercept the arc?
  126. 34. When an altitude restriction is depicted at a fix defined as the interception of a radial and an arc, the restriction must be complied no later than ______. If the restriction is met during the lead turn consider_____.
    the completion of the lead turn associated with that fix. Yourself established on the next segment and continue to descend to the next altitude restriction.
  127. 35. When can you descend on a high altitude Non-DME approach?
    Established on a parallel or intercept heading to the approach course and outbound from the IAF
  128. 36. When can you descend on a radial high altitude approach?
    Abeam or past IAF on an intercept heading
  129. 37. How far is a localizer signal usable? Can you ever exceed this?
    18nm unless otherwise published. Yes if being cleared and monitored by ATC.
  130. 38. How far is a GS signal usable?
    10 nm unless otherwise published.
  131. 39. What do you do if you exceed 2 dots high/1 low on ILS glide path?
    Do not descend below localizer mins. If GS is recaptured within 1dot/2dot tolerance descent may be continued to DH.
  132. 40. When should you discontinue an ILS/LOC approach?
    Localizer course becomes unreliable or anytime full scale deflection occurs on final approach
  133. 41. Can you intercept the glide slope above the recommended GS intercept altitude?
    Yes but you are not guaranteed reception of false glide slope signals. You need to verify altitude at FAF.
  134. 42. What do you set in the CDI course for a Localizer BC?
    The opposite inbound course so the CDI is directional.
  135. 43. Can you use a middle marker as the sole means of identifying the MAP?
    No , but if it is coincident with MAP and other indications agree you may consider yourself at the MAP.
  136. 44. Why is so important to monitor an ADF identifier?
    Because we don‘t have flags that can identify an unusable signal
  137. 45. How do you compute a VDP?
    HAT/3 for DME or HAT/10 in seconds prior to MAP timing
  138. 46. Can you use timing to identify the MAP if there is no timing box?
  139. 47. What are published VDP‘s computed from?
    Approach with lowest MDA. If VASI‘s exist then it should be coincidental with the VASIs otherwise it will be computed to the runway threshold.
  140. 48. How far off can surveillance approaches be from runway centerline?
    ASR guidance can bring the aircraft within 500' of the runway edges
  141. 49. How to calculate SRT bank angles for surveillance approaches?
    Refer to chart in 11-217. Downwind 180 KIAS std rate 27 deg. Final 120 KIAS std = 17 deg, ½ = 9 deg
  142. 50. What do you need to coordinate for during radar approaches?
    Lost comm approach or instructions specially if there are not any other compatible approaches available.
  143. 51. What angle of bank are you expected to use on final during a radar approach?
    ½ std rate turns. Use standard rate until the controller directs half standard rate.
  144. 52. How do you compute a Target VVI for a PAR?
    GS/2 for a 3.5 deg glidepath, GS/2-100 for a 2.5deg
  145. 53. How often controller will communicate during approach ?
    1 min vectored to final /15sec final ASR/5sec final PAR
  146. 54. What type of approach can you fly if you lose communications during a radar approach?
    You are automatically cleared to fly any published approach
  147. 55. What is a circling approach?
    Is a visual maneuver used, after the completion of the instrument approach, to align the aircraft with the landing runway.
  148. 56. What is the airspeed range for Cat C circling?
  149. 57. What is the protected airspace for each circling category?
    1.3, 1.5,1.7,2.3,4.5
  150. 58. What are the aircraft approach category speeds?
    less than 91 KIAS, B- Less than 121K, C- less than 141 KIAS, D less than 166 KIAS, E 166 KIAS or more
  151. 59. If you are circling and lose sight of the airport environment what do you do?
    Follow the missed approach specified for the approach procedure just flown, unless otherwise directed/ Initial climbing turn toward the landing runway will ensure the aircraft remains within circling obstruction clearance area. Continue turn until established on the missed approach course. An immediate climb must be initiated to ensure climb gradient requirements are met
  152. 60. Why certain approach procedures only specify circling minimums?
    Final approach course and runway alignment differ by more than 30 deg and/or final segment descent gradient exceeds 400ft/nm to touchdown. High terrain close to the runway can cause high FAF altitudes even though the electronic guidance is lined up. In this case the 400ft/nm descent gradient will be satisfied from FAF altitude to the circling MDA.
  153. 61. Why would we ever want to execute circling approach?
    Because strong winds may favor a runway that does not have a straight in IAP
  154. 62. What is the difference between a procedure named VOR-A and VOR-B?
    Nothing. The first procedure created will have the suffix A even though there might not be intentions to formulate additional procedures. There may not be a A with a B depicted. That just means that the approach may no longer be active.
  155. 63. When can we start our circling maneuver?
    11-217: After descending to Circling MDA and when airport environment is in sight, determine if the ceiling and vis are sufficient for performing the circling maneuver. The airport environment is considered: runway, lights, markings, taxiways, hangars etc. No specific place but says to maneuver aircraft to remain within the circling area for your aircraft category.
  156. 64. What are the altitude limits for circling?
    Obviously not lower than circling MDA. 11-217 says up to normal VFR pattern altitude.
  157. 65. What are approach categories based on?
    • Approach categories are based on 1.3 times stall speed at gross weight. This speed is related to
    • turning radius. We use Cat C for circling.
  158. 66. What kind of obstacle clearance does Circling MDA provide?
    A minimum ROC (required obstacle clearance) of 300 ft over the highest obstacle in the circling maneuver area.
  159. 68. What are some of the pitfalls while flying a circling maneuver?
    Not correcting for crosswinds. Using VFR pattern visual references for displacement when at lower altitudes
  160. 69. What kind of obstruction clearance does VASI‘s provide/ PAPI‘s?
    Aim 2-1-2: Safe obstruction clearance within plus or minus 10 degrees of the extended runway centerline and to 4nm from the runway threshold. Nothing is said about PAPI‘s . There is an advisory circular advising airport operators to provide the same criteria as the VASIs.
  161. 70. When do we turn base
    Early enough to prevent going outside protected airspace. As rule of thumb about 15 sec past threshold will keep you within cat C airspace with 10-20 kts tail on downwind.
  162. 71. When can we safely descend from our MDA?
    When in normal glidepath
  163. 72. Can we let a tower controller extend a downwind leg or call our base during circling?
    No. FAR 91.129 specifically addresses circling from a IAP. The controller‘s handbook cautions the controller against issuing restrictions that could cause you to depart the critical maneuvering area.
  164. 73. What does a restricted sector imply?
    If the IAP restricts you from maneuvering on a given sector, in theory, you could have an obstacle you could hit on final just to the restricted side of the runway centerline. (N/A for VASI/PAPI).
  165. 74. How do we maneuver during a missed approach and why?
    Obstacle clearance area provided for the missed approach is predicated upon the missed approach being started at the MAP.
  166. 75. Can you plan to circle out of a precision approach?
    Yes, but pilots are cautioned to ensure the aircraft is within the appropriate circling radius before abandoning the precision glideslope if planning to circle from a precision final approach. (11-217v1, 13.6.1)
  167. 1. Technique for entering Holding
    • Within 70 deg of the inbound course, turn outbound on the holding side to parallel the holding course
    • Not within 70 deg of the inbound course, turn in the shortest direction outbound to parallel the holding course. If this turn places you on the non-holding side, either parallel (adjust for wind) or attempt to intercept the course outbound. If you are on the non-holding side or on the holding course at the completion of the outbound leg, turn toward the holding side then proceed direct or intercept the holding course to the fix.
    • Teardrop not to exceed 45 deg of outbound course
  168. 2. Can you hold over a TACAN?
    Not if aircraft is TACAN-only equipped. If it has GPS equipment suitable for IFR operations, can hold over a TACAN by using GPS in-lieu of land-based NAVAIDS. (11-217v1, 5.10.3)
  169. 3. When does timing start for outbound leg:
    over/abeam/wings level outbound
  170. 4. How much do you time for a holding pattern?
    1min inbound max at or below 14K/ 1.5 min above 14K
  171. 5. When can you descend in a holding pattern?
    If established in holding at an altitude above the min holding altitude and cleared for the approach
  172. 6. Can you shorten/lengthen holding pattern?
    Only to meet ATC clearance, you may never lengthen the pattern
  173. 7. When do you need to slow down
    Within 3 minutes of reaching the fix
  174. 8. When are you considered established in holding?
    Upon initial passage of the holding fix
  175. 9. When do you need to get clearance by?
    ATC will normally provide holding instructions within 5 minutes of reaching a clearance limit.
  176. 10. How to do Triple Drift
    Outbound heading +-( drift*3). Time for 1%TAS/2. Ex 240TAS = 2.4/2= 1.2 min = 1+12
  177. 11. How do you visualize the pattern
    Direction of holding = wind arrow. Fix = tip of arrow = inbound course. Then draw turn.
  178. 12. What is the max/min bank you can use in holding?
    Unless compensating for winds use standard rate, 30 deg, or as commanded by the flight director, whichever is less. If compensating for winds do not use more than 30 deg or shallow more than 15 deg o ½ standard rate whichever is less.
  179. 13. What is the max teardrop for holding:
    45 degrees.
  180. 14. What is normal holding speed for the T-1?
    180 KIAS
  181. 15. Which type of Navaid can‘t you hold over?
    TACAN if TACAN-only equipped
  182. 16. How do you calculate a teardrop heading for holding?
    Offset in degrees = TR*120/ outbound distance.
  183. 17. What is a standard holding pattern?
    Turns to the right.
  184. 18. What is considered a published holding pattern?
    A holding pattern in a SID/STAR,enroute or terminal chart
  185. 1. What kind of clearance for towers is required?
    500‘ within 2 miles. Once acquired 2000ft
  186. 2. What do you Squawk in an IR/VR/SR route?
  187. 3. What is the max planned groundspeed for low levels?
    270. Normally 210-240
  188. 4. What is the minimum WX to fly a VR route?
  189. 5. What is the minimum wx to fly an IR route?
  190. 6. What is the minimum enroute altitude?
    500‘ AGL from terrain 2000‘ of aircraft
  191. 7. Course corrections techniques
    60/nm/min 240 kts SCA = 15 deg. Hold for 1 minute for each nm off course
  192. 8. Timing corrections
    change airspeed 1 kt for each sec early or late and hold for miles/minute in minutes. For 240GS = 4 minutes
  193. 9. What is the difference between a route identifier with 3 digits and 4 digits?
    3 digits if one or more segments route tops are above 1500 AGL, 4 digits if no segment is above 1500 AGL
  194. 10. What is your entry time window for Local LL routes?
    + / - 4 minutes
  195. 11. What is the definition of ERAA?
    Altitude that provides 1000/2000 ft above the highest obstacle within 25 nm of the route.
  196. 12. How much do you have to avoid towns, airfields, towers by?
    1000 ft, 1500 AGL,500 above with 2 nm if not seen, once seen 2000 ft horizontal. Non-Congested 500‘ closer to person, vehicle or structure
  197. 13. What is Continuation Fuel?
    Min amount of fuel at each checkpoint to be able to continue the route and proceed to the destination with the required fuel reserves
  198. 14. What is Expected Fuel?
    What you plan to have at each checkpoint.
  199. 15. What is Bingo Fuel?
    Computed from the most distant point on the route. Fuel required to reach destination by most direct means with fuel reserves.
  200. 16. Formation airdrop altitude in the T-1 is ___ AGL or __ ft above planned route altitude.
    1000, 500
  201. 17. What is the earliest and latest you can enter/exit a LL route?
    Plan to enter no earlier than 30 min after sunrise (1hr mountainous) and exit no later than 30 min prior to sunset (1hr mountainous)
  202. 18. When should you accomplish the altimeter checks in a LL?
    1000ft-2000 AGL
  203. When do I file IFR? (IWANA)

    • Instrument Approaches
    • WX Requires
    • Airspace (Class A)
    • Night
    • Airspeed >180kts on airways
  204. What do I need if filing to a destination with approaches?
    Compatible NAV equipment
  205. What do I need if filing to a destination without approaches?
    File to a point enroute with VFR WX (+/- 1hr ETA)
  206. What type of fields can I file to?
    • LOA
    • Mil/Civ Joint Use
    • Military
    • Civil P-Fields (JAMIE-C)
    •  - Joint Use DOD
    •  - Alternate with no other suitable
    •  - Manager/Wg Commander Approval
    •  - Interceptor a/c
    •  - Emergency
    •  - C-Coded a/c
  207. What do I need to file to a destination?
    • WX required for an approach 
    •     OR
    • PWC mins (whichever is greater)
  208. Do I need an alternate? (WWRV-RUMW)
    • Automatic if:
    • Winds out of limits (+/- 1hr ETA)
    • WX (tempo/prevail) <2000/3 (+/- 1hr ETA)
    • (or 1500/3 w/ 2+ suitable indp prec appr)
    • Denial of RVSM airspace to destination
    • VFR Descent from MIA (MOMOM)

    • If unable to make VFR Descent:
    • Radar required for all approaches
    • Unmonitored NAVAIDS
    • Lowest appr mins >=1500 OR 3sm vis
    • No WX reporting capability
  209. Does my alternate qualify? (GRAMAR-W)
    • GPS required all appr
    • Radar required all appr
    • A/NA
    • Mins >=500' above lowest compat AND 2sm (or appr mins, whichever is greater)
    • Alt "A" with applicable notes
    • RVSM required
    • Winds out of limits
  210. What are the GPS approach tolerances?
    • +/- 3*
    • 0.1 DME
  211. What are the GPS modes? (TDA)
    • Terminal - 30nm (1nm full scale defl)
    • Dev Change = 2nm prior FAF (0.3nm FSD)
    • Approach = FAF to MAP (0.3nm FSD)
  212. What does an inverted runway figure on a VFR chart indicate?
    1500-8069' length
  213. What does non-inverted runway figure on VFR chart indicate?
    >8069' length
  214. What does a magenta runway signify?
    Non-towered runway
  215. What does a blue runway signify?
    Towered runway
  216. What do we need for filing to an destination/approach at night?
    glidepath guidance
  217. What is your FAF for precision approach?
    glideslope intercept altitude
  218. When is an ILS Critical Boundary active?
    • WX <800/2
    • Aircraft conducting autoland
  219. Can we accept LAHSO?
    Passively accept; cannot be cleared to land and told to hold short another runway
  220. What is the difference between a straight-in approach and circle approach?
    • St-In = lateral guidance to runway
    • Circle = lateral guidance to airfield
  221. What is the criteria for a straight-in approach?
    • Max 400'/nm gradient from FAF to runway thresh
    • Final approach course within 30* rwy hdg
    • Intercept ext rwy centerline prior thresh
  222. Aircraft approach category speeds?
    1.3 * stall speed @ max landing wt

    • A - <91
    • B - 91-120
    • C - 121-140
    • D - 141-165
    • E - 166+

    (all KIAS)
  223. Circling visibility minimums?
    • A/B - 1nm
    • C - 1.5nm
    • D/E - 2.0nm
  224. Are circling approaches based on visibility only authorized?
    No; vis only for straight in approaches
  225. Must you go missed out of a circle if lose runway sight?
    No - Only if you lose sight of airport environment
  226. How are remain within protected circle arcs determined?
    Turning radius of a/c based on upper speed
  227. What does OBO mean?
    Official Business Only
  228. Do not exceed ___kts below 10,000'
  229. Do not exceed ___kts at or below 2500' within _nm of class C/D airport
    200kts within 4nm
  230. When can you exceed 200kts within 4nm of class C/D airport?
    • Authorized by ATC
    • Min safe maneuvering spd (climbout = 220)
  231. Is ice on the aircraft permissible?
    Only thin layer of frost on the fuselage as long as lettering visible
  232. VASI obstruction clearance?
    +/-10* extended centerline & 4nm from threshold
  233. Class A airspace?

    2-way comm & IFR rating req
  234. Class B airspace?
    • SFC-10,000
    • 3sm/clear of clouds

    2-way comm & mode C req
  235. Class C airspace?
    • SFC-4,000 (5mi)
    • 1,200-4,000 (5-10mi)
    • 3-5-1-2
    • <= 200 within 4nm <=2500'

    2-way comm req
  236. Class D airspace?
  237. What does underlined names of towns on VFR charts mean?
    VFR reporting point
  238. Magenta/Blue/Green Airport on IFR chart?
    • Magenta/Brown = No published IAP
    • Blue = Approved DOD low alt IAP
    • Green = Non-DOD approved low alt IAP
  239. What does parenthesis around an airport name mean?
    No military landing rights