PSY100: part 2
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- -based on reinforcers and punishments used after a response
- -based on what happens before the response
- -Baby Albert, Pavlov's dogs
- -Pavlov/respondent conditioning
- -(John Watson)
Heart rate, blood pressure, GSR (sweat),
A drive independent of "bodily needs"
Gestures used while speaking
Biological needs for survival:
- -intentionally ridding your body of calories (laxatives, vomiting, excessive exercise etc)
- -serious health problems
Inward motivation not caused by outside rewards etc.
motivation from outside rewards/reinforcements
study of body language
Arousal levels are:
- -high when exhibiting emotions or panic
- -moderate during a normal day
- -low when sleeping
- -zero at death
- - 8 primary emotions
- -primary emotions are mixed to create more complex emotions (fear+joy=guilt) (joy+anticipation=optimism)
the level of ability to read others and your own emotions
difficulty in experiencing, expressing and describing emotional responses.
ability to understand and project others emotions onto your self (looking at a emotional perspective from their shoes)
Fight or flight turns on the
sympathetic nervous system
- -stimulus are homeostatic
- -humans become uncomfortable when arousal is too low or too high
- -they will act to increase or decrease their level of arousal
thirst after eating something salty
body language communicates
an overall tone of emotion
- -keeping a "diet diary"
- -counting calories
- -24 hour cycle
- -motivated at the high point of the circadian rhythm
physiological changes while experiencing emotion are usually caused by
the sympathetic nervous system
- "internal mechanisms which begin, maintain, and direct behavior."
-occur when basic physiological and safety needs are not met
difference between a person's IQ and the average IQ for people in their age group
A model is more likely to be imitated:
- -if they are admired
- -are rewarded for their actions
Creator of the intelligence test (1904):
- Returning to the response after it had been "extinguished."
- -Rats in the Skinner box, hit the bar and pellet food pops out. The rat is removed from the box. When later returned, it will start hitting the bar again.
example of operant conditioning
Factors that have an effect on intelligence:
Symbols are used in language to...
... stand for objects and ideas.
a series of actions linked together that lead to reinforcement
With continuous reinforcement a subject will be rewarded for:
every correct response
precede an event
follow after an event
going from specific information to a general principle
going from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
Drawbacks to punishments:
- possibly causes more agression
- -reduces the likelihood of a certain behavior being repeated.
- -works best when applied with reinforcement
dressing oneself, eating, communicating, working, etc
Howard Gardner claims there are
eight different kinds of intelligence
produces better understanding of new problems than rote learning.
part of the brain that produces a fear response
- a systematic way to find the best answer by:
- -reading the stem of each word
- -forming a tentative response before reading the choices
- -looking for key words
A conceptual rule:
a guideline for deciding whether objects or events belong to a concept class
when a pleasant or desirable event follows a response
Mental age/chronological age x 100 =
will increase the likelyhood of a certain behavior being repeated
transformation rules (Chomsky):
ability to express ideas in a variety of way
a generalized idea representing a category of related objects or events
a key element that underlies learning:
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