PSY100: part 2

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PSY100: part 2
2014-08-13 10:42:05

PSY 100
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  1. Operant Conditioning:
    • -based on reinforcers and punishments used after a response
    • -(Skinner)
  2. Classical Conditioning
    • -based on what happens before the response
    • -Baby Albert, Pavlov's dogs
    • -Pavlov/respondent conditioning¬†
    • -(John Watson)
  3. Polygraph measures
    Heart rate, blood pressure, GSR (sweat),
  4. A drive independent of "bodily needs"
  5. Gestures used while speaking
  6. Biological needs for survival:
    primary needs
  7. Bulimia characteristics:
    • -intentionally ridding your body of calories (laxatives, vomiting, excessive exercise etc)
    • -serious health problems
  8. Intrinsic motivation
    Inward motivation not caused by outside rewards etc.
  9. Extrinsic motivation
    motivation from outside rewards/reinforcements
  10. Kinestics
    study of body language
  11. Arousal levels are:
    • -high when exhibiting emotions or panic
    • -moderate during a normal day
    • -low when sleeping
    • -zero at death
  12. Emotions:
  13. Plutchik's theory:
    • - 8 primary emotions
    • -primary emotions are mixed to create more complex emotions (fear+joy=guilt) (joy+anticipation=optimism)
  14. Emotional Intelligence:
    the level of ability to read others and your own emotions
  15. alexithyimia:
    difficulty in experiencing, expressing and describing emotional responses.
  16. empathy
    ability to understand and project others emotions onto your self (looking at a emotional perspective from their shoes)
  17. Fight or flight turns on the
    sympathetic nervous system
  18. Motivational sequence:
    • -needs
    • -drives
    • -responses
    • -goals
  19. Arousal theory
    • -stimulus are homeostatic
    • -humans become uncomfortable when arousal is too low or too high
    • -they will act to increase or decrease their level of arousal
  20. intracellular thirst
    thirst after eating something salty
  21. body language communicates
    an overall tone of emotion
  22. Behavioral dieting:
    • -keeping a "diet diary"
    • -counting calories
    • -exercising
  23. circadian rhythms
    • -24 hour cycle
    • -motivated at the high point of the circadian rhythm
  24. physiological changes while experiencing emotion are usually caused by
    the sympathetic nervous system
  25. Motivation:
    - "internal mechanisms which begin, maintain, and direct behavior."
  26. Deficiency motives
    -occur when basic physiological and safety needs are not met
  27. Deviation IQ
    difference between a person's IQ and the average IQ for people in their age group
  28. A model is more likely to be imitated:
    • -if they are admired
    • -are rewarded for their actions
    • etc.
  29. Creator of the intelligence test (1904):
    Alfred Binet
  30. Spontaneous recovery:
    • Returning to the response after it had been "extinguished."
    • -Rats in the Skinner box, hit the bar and pellet food pops out. The rat is removed from the box. When later returned, it will start hitting the bar again.
  31. Skinner box:
    example of operant conditioning
  32. Factors that have an effect on intelligence:
  33. Symbols are used in language to...
    ... stand for objects and ideas.
  34. Cognition involves:
    • -problem-solving
    • -day-dreaming
    • -etc.
  35. Response chaining:
    a series of actions linked together that lead to reinforcement
  36. With continuous reinforcement a subject will be rewarded for:
    every correct response
  37. Antecedents:
    precede an event
  38. Consequences:
    follow after an event
  39. Inductive Reasoning:
    going from specific information to a general principle
  40. Deductive  Reasoning:
    going from a general principle to a specific conclusion.
  41. Drawbacks to punishments:
    - possibly causes more agression
  42. punishment:
    • -reduces the likelihood of a certain behavior being repeated.
    • -works best when applied with reinforcement
  43. adaptive behaviors:
    dressing oneself, eating, communicating, working, etc
  44. Howard Gardner claims there are
    eight different kinds of intelligence
  45. Discovery learning
    produces better understanding of new problems than rote learning.
  46. amygdala
    part of the brain that produces a fear response
  47. A heuristic
    • a systematic way to find the best answer by:
    • -reading the stem of each word
    • -forming a tentative response before reading the choices
    • -looking for key words
    • etc
  48. A conceptual rule:
    a guideline for deciding whether objects or events belong to a concept class
  49. Positive reinforcement
    when a pleasant or desirable event follows a response
  50. Mental age/chronological age x 100 =
    Intelligence quotient
  51. reinforement
    will increase the likelyhood of a certain behavior being repeated
  52. transformation rules (Chomsky):
    ability to express ideas in a variety of way
  53. a concept
    a generalized idea representing a category of related objects or events
  54. a key element that underlies learning: