Cultural Anthropology

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Anonymous
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280577
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Cultural Anthropology
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2014-08-13 10:41:46
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Summer 2014 Intro to Cultural Anthropology Final Exam
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  1. Knowing what the subsistence base is, allows the possibility of predicting many of the other basic cultural patterns.  
    True/False
    True
  2. adaptive strategies (5)
    foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, and industrialism
  3. four basic subsistence types
    • - foraging (hunting and gathering wild plants/animals)
    • - pastoralism (herding large domesticated animals)
    • - horticulture (small-scale, low intensity farming)
    • - intensive agriculture (large-scale, intensive farming)
  4. Foraging for wild plants and hunting wild animals is the most ancient of human subsistence patterns.
    True/False
    True
  5. Foragers generally have a passive dependence on what the environment contains.  (t/f)
    True
  6. Some East African and Western North American foragers in are known to have periodically regenerated the productivity of their environments by intentionally burning grasslands and sparse woodlands.  (t/f)
    True - encouraged new vegetation growth, attracting game animals.
  7. Economic roles are mostly based on gender and age. (t/f)
    True
  8. It is unusual for some tasks to be performed by either men or women. (t/f)
    False - it ISN'T unusual for some to be performed by both genders
  9. Foragers settle temporarily... give an example of this.
    Ojibwa in Wisconsin located around small lakes to gather wild rice.
  10. The length of time that foragers stay in any one location is largely determined by the availability of food and water that is readily
    obtainable.  (t/f)
    True
  11. Foraging populations are very high density compared to other subsistence patterns.  (t/f)
    False - they're low density
  12. The band size tends to stabilize well below the carrying capacity of the local environment.  Why?
    • - social factors limit the community size (not food scarcity)
    • - more people = more potential conflict
  13. 3 major variations of foraging and define
    • 1.Pedestrian (diversified hunting and gathering on foot)
    • 2.Equestrian (concentrating on hunting large mammals from horseback)
    • 3.Aquatic (concentrating on fish and/or marine mammal hunting usually from boats)
  14. Prior to invention of agriculture ____ years ago, almost all people lived like pedestrian foragers.
    10,000
  15. Equestrian foragers have evolved in only two areas of the world--the Great Plains of North
    America and the sparse grasslands of Southern Argentina.  (t/f)
    True
  16. Equestrian foraging allowed Native Americans to follow migration of ____ over hundreds of miles.
    - bison or buffalo
  17. Aquatic Foragers
    - focused subsistence activities on:
    - well-known lived in:
    • - fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and/or marine mammals
    • - Northwest Coast of North America
  18. The hunting and gathering way of life is that of an uncertain existence in a harsh environment and a short miserable life.  (t/f)
    False - MISCONCEPTION; myth demolished by ethnographic research
  19. People who subsisted by hunting and
    gathering often, but not always, lived in band-organized societies. (t/f)
    True
  20. All human societies have some kind of division of labor based on gender. (t/f)
    True
  21. egalitarian = ?
    - equal based on gender; foraging societies are mostly egalitarian
  22. Horticulture involves cultivation that makes intensive use of land, labor, capital, or machinery. (t/f)
    False - they're not intensive
  23. Example of horticulturalists
    the Yanomami and shifting cultivation
  24. 4 types of political organization and define
    • 1.Band—small kin-based group found among
    • foragers
    • 2.Tribe—economies based on non-intensive food production
    • 3.Chiefdom—intermediate form between tribe and state
    • 4.State—formal governmental structure and
    • socioeconomic stratification
  25. The Yanomami believe that the position of village head (the main leadership position) is achieved; it comes with very limited authority. (t/f)
    True
  26. Sodality (pantribal); define and examples
    non-kin-based organizations that may generate cross-societal linkages; secret societies/DAR
  27. age sets; define and example
    • unisex (usually male) political groups, including everyone born within a certain time
    • span; high school or age grades among plains tribes a 13 year old group, you must buy status
  28. define office
    • Office:
    • A permanent position that must be
    • refilled when it is vacated by death or retirement
  29. sex and gender: differences
    • sex - biological
    • gender - cultural
  30. matrilineal/matrilocal societies
    women have the power (Iroquois women control the economy and have political influence)
  31. descent group
    a group based on belief in a shared ancestry

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