IFSTA Driver Operator Handbook

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Author:
dfrazier
ID:
280668
Filename:
IFSTA Driver Operator Handbook
Updated:
2014-10-03 01:09:44
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Firefighting
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Description:
Notes for test from IFSTA second edition manual
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  1. What NFPA standard covers the Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus
    NFPA 1901
  2. NFPA 1901 Pumper Min. Capacity
    750 GPM and increments of 250 thereafter
  3. Fire Pumper includes (Basic)
    • Fire pump
    • Controls
    • Intake
    • Discharge
    • Fire hose for Intake, Supply, Attack
  4. Min tank capacity of Water Tender
    1000 Gallons
  5. Water Tender Single Axle
    limit to 1500 gallons
  6. Two methods of Water Tender use
    • 1.  Nurse Tender
    • 2.  Water Shuttle
  7. Tender with a pump is called
    Tactical Tender or Attack Tender
  8. Pump and Roll
    • PTO powers the pump
    • Do not ride outside the vehicle while moving
  9. Quints and min pump capacity
    • Apparatus with Aerial, Ladders, Pump, Tank and fire hose.
    • Aerial Min pump 250 GPM
    • True Quint 750 GPM
  10. Steering While Play
    10 degrees from normal max
  11. NFPA 1901 brake test
    stop from 20 mph within 35 ft
  12. Parking Brake Grade must hold
    20%
  13. Air Brake pressure build time
    60 seconds
  14. Brake test
    from 5mph in 20 feet: for both brakes and air brake switch
  15. Percent of FF injury caused by collision-responding or returning.
    20-25% (up to 25 deaths per year)
  16. Most frequent area of vehicle collision
    At intersections
  17. Conditions under which most accidents occur
    Daylight, dry roads
  18. Exemptions for FD vehicles driving code
    • Speed
    • Direction of travel and turns
    • Parking
  19. No FD vehicle exemption for:
    School buses with flashing lights
  20. Charges possible for negligent FD driver
    • Civil and Criminal
    • Both driver and department
  21. Engine Idling
    • Avoid
    • If long periods required, use high idle
  22. Hot engine shutdown
    Allow to cool 3-5 minutes
  23. First Element of safe driving
    A safety conscious attitude
  24. NFPA 1500 (Safety) seat belt requirements
    All people seated and belted before moving.
  25. Seat Belt expectations per NFPA
    • 1.  Patient Care
    • 2.  Loading Hose (5mph max)
    • 3.  Driver training for tiller ops
  26. Backing the vehicle
    • Avoid!
    • Use one or preferably two spotters.
    • Do not back if you can't see spotters.
  27. Intersections and red light/stop signs
    • Stop if necessary (obstruction)
    • Stop and proceed if red.
  28. Taking oncoming traffic
    Avoid if they can't see you
  29. Snow stopping
    3-15x more distance
  30. Siren and Horn use
    Quick burst on horn and constant siren
  31. Speed to outrun the siren
    Above 50 MPH
  32. Headlights and emergency response
    • Headlights on while responding
    • Off when they may blind oncoming
  33. Multiple Unit response travel distance
    300-500 feet apart
  34. Attack pumper positioning
    • If narrow, drop your own supply
    • If rescue, ladders accessible
    • Uphill
    • Upwind
    • On pavement
    • Out of collapse zone (1.5x)
    • On corner of building
    • Away from power lines
    • Out of growth area
    • Below three stories can be on inside of ladder.
  35. Positioning for Drafting
    • On hard surface
    • Attach hard suction just before draft placement
    • Attach rope to control strainer
    • Move into drafting place
  36. Positioning for hydrants
    • Offset (short or long of hydrant)
    • At 45degree to prevent kinks
  37. Dual Pumping
    • Intake to Intake using one hydrant.
    • Residual water will be used by second pumper.
  38. Tandem Pumping
    • Short Relay (Discharge to Intake)
    • Second engine increases pressure of hydrant (high rise or long lays)
    • Up to 300 ft apart
    • As in "Pump the supply"
  39. Staging Levels
    • Level I (small response, one block out)
    • Level II (IC calls for staging, 1st arriving officer at staging area is manager) Units must be within 3 min out
  40. Highway Positioning
    • Don't use sirens except to move people
    • Use lights while responding then minimal
    • Use advance waring (cones and flares)
    • Protect the scene and pump panel
    • Second unit 150-200ft
  41. Hazmat Positioning
    • Don't go direct to scene
    • ID the material first
    • Don't stop over manholes
  42. Characteristics of water:
    • 1.  Weight:  62.5/lb per cubic foot or 8.33lb/gallon
    • 2.  Freeze at 32, boil at 212
    • 3.  Not compressible
  43. Btu
    The amount of heat required to raise 1 lb of water 1 degree F. (starting at 60 degrees)
  44. Specific Heat-heat absorbing capacity
    Ratio of heat it takes to raise the temp of  identical quantities of water and another substance.   Water=1.
  45. Latent Heat of Vaporization
    Quantity of heat absorbed by a substance when it changes from liquid to vapor. 

    The temp this starts is the Boiling Point (212 for water)

    972 Btu required to convert each lb of water to steam (starting at 212)
  46. Btu absorption from 1 gallon water converting to steam
    972*8.33 for conversion, plus amount to raise to 212.  Starting at 60 degrees=9346 total
  47. Surface area and heat absorption
    More surface area exposure=faster absorption
  48. Expansion of Water
    at 212 degrees water expands 1700 times its volume
  49. Observable results of water application
    • Fire extinguished or reduced
    • Temperature decresed
    • Visibility changed
  50. Specific Gravity
    • Density of liquid as compared to water
    • <1 floats on water (most flam liquids)
    • >1 sinks on water

    Danger of floating flam liquids is they may float away on the runoff.
  51. Pressure
    Force per unit of area.

    The same weight (or force) may exert a different pressure depending on the area over which it is applied.
  52. Pressure of 1 square inch of water 1 foot high
    • 62.5 lbs/cubic foot
    • 62.5/12/12=.434lb
  53. Height in feet that exerts 1 psi
    2.304 feet (1/.434)
  54. Speed at which a fluid travels
    velocity
  55. Atmospheric pressure at sea level
    14.7 psi
  56. Gauge and Absolute pressure
    • Gauge pressure measures pressure above normal (atmospheric) 
    • Absolute would include atmospheric as if in a absolute vacuum
    • A pressure less than 0 gauge is a vacuum.
  57. Vacuum
    Any pressure less than atmospheric pressure
  58. Head
    The height of water above the discharge orifice
  59. Head pressure
    The height above discharge x .434 or /2.304

    therefore about .5 x the height
  60. Static Pressure
    • Stored potential energy without any flow
    • or
    • the pressure in a water system before water flows.
  61. Normal operating pressure
    Pressure with flow (static pressure reduced by friction from flow)
  62. Residual Pressure
    Left over pressure in the system not being used for flow.
  63. Flow Pressure (Velocity Pressure)
    • The forward velocity pressure at a discharge opening while water is flowing.
    • Measured with pitot tube and gauge to measure the pressure.
    • Used together with the size of opening to calc qty in GPM.
  64. Elevation pressure
    Pressure loss or gain do to elevation of nozzle above or below the pump.
  65. Altitude effects on pressure
    .5 psi per 1000 ft above sea level
  66. Friction Loss
    The total pressure lost due to forcing water through pipes, fittings, hoses, etc.
  67. 4 Principles of friction loss
    • 1.  Varies directly with length
    • 2.  Varies with the square of velocity-GPM (x2)
    • 3.  Varies inversely with diameter to 1/x5
    • 4.  Pressure does not increase FL for a given flow velocity (GPM)

    Summary:  Less water less FL.  Bigger hose much less FL.  Pressure doesn't change FL.  Double the length, double the FL
  68. Critical Velocity
    The GPM flowing in a hose, beyond which FL makes it impossible to increase flow by increasing pressure.
  69. Water system delivery pipes
    • 1.  Primary Feeders (mains 6" or 8")
    • 2.  Secondary feeders (loops)
    • 3.  Distributers (serves hydrants and consumers)
  70. Control Valves for water systems
    • Indicating or Non
    • Gate or Butterfly
    • A partially opened valve causes FL that may not be noticed until Fire Flow is needed.
  71. Fire Stream
    • Water or foam as is leaves the nozzle and reaches a desired point
    • Influenced by velocity, gravity, wind, friction with air.
  72. Three type of fire streams (and nozzles for each)
    • Solid
    • Fog
    • Broken
  73. Solid vrs Straight Stream
    • Solid stream requires solid bore nozzle
    • Straight is best can be delivered from fog nozzle.
  74. Solid bore nozzle description and nozzle pressures
    • Tapered and then cylindrical to create the solid chunk of water.
    • Length of bore=1-1.5 times the diameter
    • Pump at 50 for handlines and 80 master streams.
  75. GPM for solid bore
    • D=diameter in inches of the opening
    • NP=Nozzle pressure in psi (50=7, 80=9)
  76. Constant Flow Nozzle
    • Designed to flow same amount of water at specified nozzle pressure regardless of pattern.
    • NP usually = 100psi (LP may be 50 or 75)
  77. Manually adjustable nozzles
    Can adjust the GPM as well as pattern.
  78. Automatic Nozzles
    • Adjust for changing volumes and maintain nozzle pressure and pattern regardless of actual flow. 
    • *Driver make sure to pump enough water to put out the fire.
    • Within limits the nozzle maintains 100 psi at tip (like a pressure regulator)
  79. Handline nozzle max GPM
    350 GPM
  80. Master Stream (def)
    • Nozzle with too great a flow to be controlled without mechanical aid. (Above 350 GPM)
    • Has a fixed placement, but movement is allowed through one or more sharp bends (in line or in piping)
    • Most often used in defensive attacks.
  81. Master Stream PSI
    • 80 for solid
    • 100 for fog
  82. Four basic Master Stream Types
    • Monitor (able to changed direction and angle)
    • Turret (supplied by permanent piping, not portable)
    • Deluge (large nozzle, can't be moved)
    • Elevated aka ladder pipe (on the end of an aerial)
  83. Other nozzle types
    • Cellar
    • Chimney
    • Piercing
    • Water curtain
  84. Max workable Velocity and PSI for handline NR
    60-120 ft/sec or 25-100 PSI
  85. Solid Stream NR formula



    Can also be NR=GMP/3
  86. Fog Stream NR formula


    or GPM times 10 divied by 20

    or 1/2 GPM
  87. Friction Loss Equations


    • Q=GPM/100
    • L=Feetofhose/100 (per 100)
    • C=
    • 1 3/4 =15.5
    • 2 1/2= 2
    • 3 =.8
    • 4 = .2
    • 5 = .08
  88. Appliance FL
    • Call it 0 below 350 GPM
    • Appliance in a hose assembly 10 psi FL
    • Master Stream appliance 25 psi regardless of flow.
  89. Elevation Pressure (EP)
    .5H or 5 psi per story (minus 1)

    (1ft of water makes .434 psi pressure)
  90. Total Pressure Loss (TPL) def
    FL + EP = TPL
  91. PDP (pump discharge pressure)
    Nozzle Pressure plus Total Pressure Loss
  92. Net Pump Pressure
    PDP minus Hydrant Pressure (intake reading)
  93. NFPA 1901 and flowmeters
    • Allowed on 1 1/2 to 3 inch discharges
    • Must also have pressure gauge if over 3"
  94. Flowmeter accuracy
    +/- 3% (3 gallons/100)
  95. Water flow problem diagnosis
    • Kinked hose:  hose hard no flow at nozzle or meter
    • Burst Section: hose soft no/diminished flow to nozzle, flowmeter doesn't reduce
  96. Relay Pumping with a flowmeter
    Increase discharge to attack pumper until flowmeter stops increasing.  This is their NFF.
  97. Condensed Q
    • Field hydraulics formula
    • FL=CQ2L

    • 3"=1
    • 4"=/5
    • 5"=/15 (20 in Kent)
  98. Single Action Piston Pump
    • First half stroke is intake
    • Second half is discharge
  99. Dual Action piston pump
    Allows flow on both strokes
  100. Centrifugal Pump
    • Not a positive displacement pump
    • Imparts velocity to the water and converts it to pressure.
  101. Centrifugal Pump Key Parts
    • Impeller- spins and imparts velocity to outward flowing water.
    • Casing- collects and confines  water creating pressure and directs it out outlet.
    • Volute the area of increasing volume in which the water moves toward the outlet
  102. Two Stage Pump ops
    In volume for max water (over 1000 GPM) but creates more work for the pump.  When in doubt run in volume.

    In pressure for long high pressure lays with low volume or for short low volume fires, like small car fire nearby. Requires less engine RPM.
  103. Changeover Caution
    • Transfer valve used
    • Changing from Volume to Pressure doubles the discharge pressure
    • Gen rule:  max of 50 psi net before changeover
    • If in doubt run in volume mode (parallel)
  104. PTO pumps and pump and roll ops
    • PTO spins in proportion to engine speed.
    • When pump and roll ops drive in the lowest gear at the (safest) speed that develops the proper pressure for the handline to operate.
    • A pressure gauge is visible on the dash.
  105. Midship pumps
    • Most common
    • Power provided through split shaft (drive shaft "split" to allow insertion of pump transfer case between transmission and rear axle)
  106. Pump Discharges (min) NFPA 1901
    • Enough 2.5 and larger discharges to flow rated capacity of pump.
    • Pumps over 750 GPM must have at lease two 2.5.
    • Larger can not be on pump panel
    • Smaller must still have 2" piping
  107. Discharge rates by outlet size
    • 2.5=250 GPM
    • 3.5=500 GPM
    • 5= 1000 GPM
  108. Min tank fill line size
    1" for tanks less than 1000 Gal
  109. Two stage pump and "tank fill" cooling
    Fill line can cause second stage impeller heating because it comes off the first stage to reduce pressure to tank.  Use cooler instead.
  110. Valves
    • Ball- most common, full flow, min loss.  T handle or quarter turn to operate.
    • Gate- on large diameter, operate with handwheel
    • Butterfly- Quarter turn handle
    • 3" or more requires slow acting valve control
  111. Pressure Control Devices standard
    NFPA 1901 requires them to operate within 3-10 seconds after pressure rises and not allow more than 30 psi above level set.
  112. Pressure sensor governor
    A small line sends pressure reading and the controller reduces engine RPM (throttle)
  113. Hydrant Color Codes (high to low)
    • Light Blue 1500 or greater
    • Green 1000-1499
    • Orange 500-999
    • Red <500
  114. Dry Barrel Hydrant
    • Frost Proof
    • Must be opened all the way to close drain valve, then back 1/4 turn.
    • Use Gate for second supply
    • 2 1/2 port should be no longer than 300 ft lay
  115. Reverse Lay
    • Supplement Hydrant pressure
    • Drafting ops
  116. 10-15-25 Rule
    • 10 % drop = 3x current amount (3 more like lines)
    • 15 % = 2 more
    • 25 % = 1 more
    • > 25% less than one more
  117. Max Vacuum for most pumps
    • 22 inches of mercury
    • If increase throttle does not increase pressure you are near cavitation.
  118. Master and Compound Gauges
    Read from 0-600 psi for both and compound has 0-30 inches of Mercury
  119. Drafting Strainer clearance
    2 feet above and 2 feet around
  120. Two Stage Pump position in a draft
    In Volume,  possible air entrapment otherwise
  121. Drafting and lift
    • tested at 10 ft with 20ft hard suction
    • 14.7 ft should be min
    • 25 ft max
    • 15 ft at 70% capacity
    • 20 ft at 60% capacity
  122. Relay Pumping
    • Set intake relief 10 psi tolerance above static pressure or incoming relay pressure
    • Attack set intake to 50-75 PSI to keep shutdown of attack lines from building excess pressure.
    • As long as between 10-100 psi don't adjust pressures.
    • Shut down attack engine first
  123. Max Distance Relay
    • 4" at 1000 GPM is 825' at 185 psi
    • 5" at 1250 GPM is 1320' at 185

    Formula:  Distance/max distance for line +1 and round up!
  124. Constant Pressure Relay
    • Attack pumper at fire finds NFF
    • Largest capacity pumper at water source
    • Lay supply for NFF
    • Open a discharge for air to escape
    • Pump at 175
  125. NFPA Tender Requirements
    • Tank to pump must supply 500 GPM
    • Tank capacity must be at least 1000 Gallons
    • Tank fill at least 2" capable of 1000 GPM fill
    • Tank Dischare of at least 1000 GPM
  126. Class A proportioning
    .1-1%
  127. Class B proportioning
    • 1-3% for hyrdrocarbon
    • 3-6% for polar solvents (most modern gasoline)
  128. Yearly Pump Test
    • 5 and 20 min at 150 PSI (in Volume)
    • 10 min at 200 PSI
    • 10 min at 250 PSI (in Series)
  129. Vacuum Test
    • 22 inches mercury
    • can not drop more than 10 inches in 5 min
  130. Flowmeters and gauges
    Not off by more than 10% or 10 PSI
  131. Post Manufacture Road Test
    • Accelerate to 35 MPH in 25 seconds
    • Top speed of 50 MPH
    • Full stop from 20 MPH in 35 feet

    Hydrostatically tested at 250 PSI for 3 min

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