ABES Module 2 - Plant types fertilizers and soil

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  1. A plant that has no wood in the stem is called?
  2. Annuals are plants that?
    grow from seed, flower, set seed and die in one season
  3. perennials are?
    Plants that come up again every year such as tulips
  4. daffodils and columbines are?
  5. name 2 deciduous evergreens
    Larch, and tamarack
  6. Lawn grasses are perennial, biennial, or annual?
  7. buttercups, monkshood, ferns and milkweed are important because
    They are toxic to hoof stock
  8. monkshood is known for?
    Toxic to hoofstock
  9. What is the rules of threes?
    plants of 3 different species should be plants in proximity to eachother in flower beds
  10. Liquid fertilizers are quickly absorbed nutrients true or false?
  11. 10-2-5 on a fertilizer lable means what?
    • 10% N
    • 2% P
    • 5% K
  12. Are rotted manure and compost acceptable sources of fertilizer?
  13. MIcrobes and fungus improve soil quality?
  14. Where does Skunk cabbage grow?
    shady boggy areas
  15. Sand perlite and vermiculite are all what?
    Important inorganic soil amendments
  16. The major funtion of inorganic soil amendments is nutrients?
    • False
    • Water availability
  17. name 3 inorganic soil amendments
    • perlite
    • sand
    • vermiculite
  18. PLants are generally considered, herbacious or?
  19. Woody plants are characterized by?
    Having wood in the stem not necessarily being trees
  20. Not only trees have woody stems but?
    Shrubs and some perenial flowering plants especially from arctic or alpine places
  21. Evergreens are defined as?
    Retaining their leaves for more than pone year
  22. Name a conifer that loses its needles every year
  23. ______ complete their life cyce within one year
  24. Are sunflowers a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  25. Are petunias a a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  26. Are marigolds a a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  27. Are zinnias a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  28. Are hollyhocks a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  29. Are forget-me-not a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  30. is foxglove a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  31. is sweet william a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  32. are columbines a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  33. are anemones a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  34. are daffodils a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  35. are tulips a annual, perennial, or biennial?
  36. MOst zoos buy annuals because
    they can getearlier long lasting flowers
  37. Biennials need atleast  ____ years to bloom set seed and die
  38. What can biennials do as a purpose on their 1st year?
    Act as ground shelter to protect the soil.
  39. Many Flowering plants can attract beautiful butterflies and?
    Bees which can be a hazard
  40. Perenials usually live how long?
    Several years
  41. most zoo perenials are?
  42. Why are perennials so useful?
    • MInimized labor
    • come in every colour in the rainbow
  43. Perennials big claim to fame is?
    • diversity
    • grow in shade and sun, every different colouyr texture, height etc
  44. Perennials usually become more _______ with each year they come back
    Bushier and showier
  45. Can you just leave perennils?
    No they still need watering pruning and maintenance
  46. 3 places you can gather trees and shrubs
    • Nurseries
    • garden centers
    • Provincial permits to gather
  47. Why do zookeepers need to have a good basic knowledge of indigenous plants
    • Best suited for the environment
    • probably most hardy
    • probably lowest maintenance
    • most natural looking
  48. WHat is a good substitute for a tamarack larch that does not do well on the prairies?
    Siberian larch
  49. buttercup daffodils and elderberry are all?
    Poisonous to hoofstock
  50. what part of rhubarb is poisonous?
  51. Monkshoof and milkweed are?
    Toxic to hoofstock
  52. ferns can often be?
    Toxic to hoofstock
  53. Foxglove contains
    digitalis that affects heart rate
  54. WHat parts of water hemlock are poisonous?
    All parts
  55. Are toxic plants toxic all the time?
    NO some plants are only poisonous during certain seasons or only if grown in certain soils
  56. What is something to always consider when planting fruit trees
    When fruit ripens and falls animals can consume over ripe fruits and become quite intoxicated
  57. Sign of an intoxicated bird?
    Hanging by 1 foot or wing spread eagle
  58. Coniferous trees can be useful to hoofstock for/
    Removal of velvet or shaggy coats
  59. WHat are 2 good choices for browse enrichment growth and why?
    • Hybrid poplar, siberian elm
    • Hardy fast growing species that can regenerate from the base after cutting
  60. Trees can regrow from the stump and dont need to be replanted (T/F)
  61. Best tree harvest rotation schedule is?
    3-5 year rotation
  62. Trees and shrubs should be planted in a hole large enough to
    For the roots to be spread out not scrunched up
  63. When planting trees and shrubs, cover the roots in and be sure that the plant is at the same?
    • Organic soil
    • level it was before
  64. Leave a depression when planting trees around the trunk how big and why? WHat else should you do for the first few years?
    • 0.5-1meter to water them in
    • stake the trees so it will not cause them to shift
  65. When trees are very large and need to come down you should?
    COnsult a professional
  66. If trees which tend to sucker need to be cut they should be done when?
    Late fall
  67. HOw do you prevent regrowth a shrub being removed.
    Cut then till with commercial till to get the roots
  68. 2 uses for trees and shrubs that are being torn out
    • Enrichment for animals
    • chipped in a chipper and used for mulch
  69. IF a soil has a tendency to dry adding what can help
    Digging in peat moss
  70. heavy clay soils can be improved by?
    Adding organic matter and inorganic matter such as perlite or coarse sand
  71. 2 types of fertilizer
    Liquid or slow release granule types
  72. What is usually more expensive compost and manure or synhetic fertilizers
  73. When fertilizing blue grass you should do it when and why?
    • Early spring or fall
    • fertlizing in the summer can stimulate crabgrass and other weeds
  74. Nitorgen in plants is important for what?
    • Proteins and chlorophyll
    • Acellerates growth and results in dark green colour
  75. NItrogen should always be supplelemted with?
    Plenty of water
  76. Nutrient in fertilizers that is most needed? (abundance)
  77. Phosphorus is important for?
    Root growth, utilization of sugar, photosynthysis, cell division, maturity and rapid growth
  78. Phosphorus deficiency looks like?
    Slowed plant growth and purpling or browning on lower leaves moving upwards
  79. Potassium is needed for?
    Photosynthesis, activation of enzymes, and osmotic regularion
  80. Potassium deficicency appears as what in alfalfa?
    White spots
  81. Sulfer is added to fertilizer for what?
    Enhance function of nitrogen, elminate or reduce incidence of fungal diseases in flowerbeds
  82. Synthetic fertilizers add nutrients but dont?
    INcrease soil texture or structure
  83. Organic material increase texture and structure of soil how?
    • INcreases aggregration of soil particles through microbes
    • microbes produce gelatinous material
    • fungus hyphae wrap around particles
    • Humic acid formed with decomp ehich forms complexes with clay releasing elements for plants
  84. Before adding fertilizer best thing to do is?
    Soil analyses
  85. Solubility fo fertilizer can result in?
    Leaching in heavy rains
  86. Organic magterials are generally much lower in utrient concentration than synthetics. some exceptions include
    • Blood meal : N = 10-15
    • Bone meal : P = 22-24
    • Hoof and horn meal : N = 10-14
    • Dried poultry manure : K = 3
  87. Compost is?
    Organic material on its way to becoming humus
  88. Do not try to compost
    • meat and bone
    • feces of carnivores or primates
    • weeds gone to seed or disease trees or shrubs
  89. to be effective the compost pile should heat to?
    70 degrees celcius
  90. With the heat generated it may b required to?
    Soak and turn over the pile periodically
  91. some zoos use chips and sawdust for?
    Putting on paths to prevent mud buildup
  92. IF you add sawdust or bark to soils you can do what?
    INcrease water andnutrient holding ability
  93. Inidication of lack of nitrogen?
    Pale or yellow foliage
  94. Sawdust has a bad name because?
    Absorbs nitrogen when decomposes and decomposes quickly
  95. What is a phytotoxin
    • TOxin found in plants, toxic to plants.
    • Often seen in trees so if ground up and added to soil can cause problems
  96. Phytotoxins often found in?
    • Western red cedar
    • white pine bark
    • black walnut
    • hemlock bark
    • redwood
  97. How can we reduce toxicity of phytotoxins in trees
    Newly milled wood should be allowed to sit outside for 6 weeks
  98. Sawdust is naturally what pH? does this cause problems
    • Acidic
    • no quickly neautralized by soil.
    • Acids break down quickly
  99. Peat moss is from?
    undecomposed Sphagnum moss
  100. Peat moss cells can hold _____x their weight in water
  101. Water held in peat moss is useful to plants becaus
    Held loosely enough that plants can steal it
  102. Sphagnum contains what compound
    Shagnol a mild antiseptic
  103. 30% of worlds peatmoss comes from
  104. 3 important inorganic soild amendments are?
    • Sand
    • Perlite
    • Vermiculite
  105. Inorganics are added to
    IMprove aeration drainage and soil texture
  106. Soil compaction removes? Major problem in zoos when?  Can be prevented by?
    • Soil atmosphere, can kill trees
    • Hoofed stock or large mammals use area
    • Taking fences surrounding trees and ,moving them outwards to half the height of the tree
  107. IS sand used alone to lighten heavy clay soils?
    NO often in half and half mix with compost
  108. Sand used in soils should be?(4)
    • >0.5mm in diameter
    • not washed
    • irregular shape
    • not beach sand
  109. WHat happens if you add small round sand particles to clay
    You get a substance similar to concrete when you try to till it
  110. GIve an example of a good sand to use to lighten a soil
    • Coarse silica sand (builders sand) washed to remove silt
    • Helps make pores bigges and facilitate drainage of water itno soil
  111. Does the amount of sand and organics needing to be added to clay seem like aot?
    • Yes often more than one would expect.
    • Best to experiemnt with a small area and record ratios
  112. Perlite is manufactured from
    Granite like volcanic rock that is crushed and then heated to 980 degrees causing granules to expand and fill with air
  113. Describe perlite
    • LIghtweight
    • White
    • Holds little neutrients
    • neautral pH
  114. How does perlite trap moisture
    Surface is covered in tiny pits that catch it
  115. Drawbacks to perlite?
    • Expensive
    • Does nto last long

    May be desirable for small feature sites and hanging baskets
  116. IF perlite is worked often by heavy tilling what happens? We use perlite mostly in?
    • Breaks down to dust and then impedes the soil instead of helping it
    • greenhouses and hydroponic operations
  117. Vermiculite is ?
    • Lightweight, inert consistent product
    • MIca is heated to 870 degrees in manufacturing
    • expands to 12x normal volume
  118. Advantage to vermiculite
    Can bind and release nutrients and has some pottasium and magnesium
  119. pH of vermiculite?
  120. Vermiculite like perlite is?
    • Espensive
    • used in hydroponic operations
    • breaks down with tilling
  121. HYdrogels are also known as?
    Water absorbing polymers
  122. Describe hydrogels
    • Polymers that absorb water and swell where the water can be extracted slowly by the plant preventing or delaying drough stress
    • apparently absorb 100x weight in water
  123. Full expanion of hydrogels takes? Really good for reducing? best used in?
    • 6 hours
    • watering frequency
    • hanging baskets
  124. Hydrogels are sometimes used in sandy soils incorporated to a depth of
  125. Expansion and contraction of hydrogels can cause what
    Increased soil aeration
  126. HYdrogels can also store? Hydrogels are purported to last?
    • dissolved nutrients
    • 10years
  127. Hydrogels tend to absorb what minerals? This can be a problem when? Why? This results in what? HYdrogels are best used where?
    • Iron, magnesium, and calcium
    • Prairie soils
    • Minerals destroy hydrogel structure
    • Slimy mass impeding soil pore space
    • coastal or formerly forest areas
  128. 3 functions of horticulture in exhibits
    • aesthetic barriers
    • beutify enclosures
    • sites where animals can rest
    • enrichment
  129. 3 sources where you can obtain trees
    • Nurseries
    • permit to take from wild
    • municipal greenhouses
    • ask for donations from forestry companies
  130. to prevent soil compaction by hoofed stock leading to damage to or death of trees how far out from the trees should fences be extended
    half the heigh of the tree
  131. define annual plants
    Germinate, grow, flower, set seed and die in one season
  132. define biennial plants
    take 2 years from germination to flowering then die
  133. define perennials
    live multiple years and flower and set seed each year after maturtiy
  134. a fertilizer 20-10-3 would be best for
    early spring lawn supplement
  135. name 3 inorganic soil amendments
    • sand
    • perlite
    • vermiculite
  136. 3 organic soil amendments
    • peat moss
    • sawdust
    • compost
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ABES Module 2 - Plant types fertilizers and soil
ABES Module 2 - Plant types, fertilizers and soil
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