ABES Module 3 - Watering mulch lawns and pruning
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ABES Module 3 - Watering mulch lawns and pruning
ABES Module Watering mulch lawns pruning
ABES Module 3 - Watering, mulch, lawns and pruning
buried drip or trickle automated watering systems can reduce water consumption by?
under peak growing conditions soil is about ____% mineral fragments
field capacity refers to
soil that has lost water from the macropores but has micropores still full of water
The permanent wilting point is reached when
there is only water so tightly bound to the mineral fragments in soil that plants cant get it
IN watering lawns it is ideal if the application rate is what then the infiltration rate
a bit less
Broad leafed trees such as willows have relatively what level of water demand
The greater the organic material amount in soild the ____ water the soil can hold
herbaceous annuals are _____% water
What % of water entering plants is used in photosynthesis
when is the best time of day to water lawns?
describe how the soil in a flowerbed should be watered till
form a ball of soil from the bed in your hand, but it is still somewhat crumbly
The feeder roots of mature trees are concentrated _______ ________ below the surface
upper 40 centimeters
Is it best to avoid very high pressure in sprinkler lines?
Mulch is a surface layer of decayed and decaying organic matter (T/F)
How does mulching effect soil compaction
minimum mulch depth is?
are post peeling, peat moss and wood chips satisfactory materials for mulch?
Perfect mulch for conifers?
COnifer cones and needles
Do inorganic mulches work well in suppressing weed growth
Seeded lawns are vcheaper but
Take longer to grow
Mowing lawns too low does what to roots?
Decreases root size
INjuring the roots of many broad leafed trees promotes
Describe crested wheat grass and idaho fescue. Would these be good lawn grasses
NO red fescue and kentucky blue grass is best
Manitoba maple or box elder are poor choices for zoo trees because they?
High phosphorus fertilizer should be applied when?
PRior to laying sod
Is pruning to reduce leafy top when transplanting a good idea?
should you prune damaged limbs of trees after storms?
HEading back is a pruning method t make
An oversized plant fit a limited space
Can pruning flowering shrubs at the wrong time of the year hurt flowering?
Yes can reduce or arrest it
IMportant for the zoos to learnt o conserve water because?
INcreasingly more expensive
can buried automated drip or tricle system save labor?
Describe the composition of soil under peak growing conditions
50% organic material
When you water a soil what happens to the pores
THe wetting front moves downward with gravity filling both macro and micro pores (air filled spaces)
After heavy watering or rain the wetting front can move downwards for how long?
ONce macropores are drained the soil is said to be
at field capacity
At field capactiy the macropores are full of
plants can remove water from micropores until
The permanent wilting point when onyl water in soil is so attached to mineral fragments that plants cant get it
Why would clay have a higher permenanet wilting point than other soils
TIny particles in clay bondmore tightly to water molecules than sandy soils do
4 ways we lose water directed towards plants
application to none target areas
leached below plant root zones
Evaporation losses are accelerated by (5)
WHy is morning best to water
lowest temp l
Higher angle at which spray emerges from sprinkler
LOnger the droplets are in the air to evaporate
IN windy areas an angle of no more than _______-% above the horizon is recomended
Chief reason for runoff
Too rapid application rates
What is runoff
Water not absorbed by soil and flows away
Application rate should always be
Just a bit less than infiltration
Slopes are (more/less) prone to runoff
Best to landscape so heavy rains and runoff flow where?
To high demand horticulture plants such as willows and broad leafed trees
Water that falls outside the landscape area on walkways, parking driveways or unplanted areaas
Water that under the influence of gravitycarries nutrients below the root zone of plants thus wasting both water and nutrients
MOisture holding capacity of soil is?
Amount of water the soil can absorb
MOisture holding capacity is directly related to? (2)
Organic material in soil
Soil texture refers to?
relative proportion of sand silt and clay particles in soil
WHy do sandy soils absorb and lose water quickly
LArge pores and large particles
Sandy soils have ______ water holding capacity than clay soils
If a drip line is applied to sandy soils it penetrates ________but does not get as far _________
plants need _________ water regardless of soil type
Because plants need the same amount o water regardless of soil would a sandy or clay like soil need to be watered more often
application rate of 2.5 cm of water will penetrate how deep in sandy and how deep in clay
Name 4 factors affecting water movement
Repeated cultivation to the same depth can cause what?
A hardpan to form in the soil (fractured by winter freezing if enough moisture)
What do hardpans do to plants?
Limit depth from which theycan draw misture
Layering of different soils does what to water movement
Slows capillary action that moves water to the roots
layering and Hardpans are bad because
contribute to soil saturation, oxygen depletion and decreased soil depth [lants can draw water from
salts do what to water in soil
INcrease strength with which soil water is held onto, decreasing availability to plants
Woody plants are about what %water when growing?
Alfalfa plant uses how much water to form 1 gram of plant tissue?
2 water functions
Water pressure allows plants to stand up
All plant chemical reactions happen in solutions
99% of all water that enters the plants roots goes where? process is called?
evaporates through tiny holes in the leaves called stomata
Transpiration is accellerated by?
Heat and wind
As water runs up it does what to hold the plant up
Keeps a constant column of water which allows tension in the trunks kas water transpires and pulls from the roots
If you put a strain gauge around a trunk during the day you find what?
The trunk shrinks during active transpiration
Water conducting cells make up the xylem in plants, in woody plants we call this tissue
Transpiration, along with moving water up and keeping the plant upruight also functions to
Cool the plant
Water leaves through the stomata and what comes in?
Photosynthesis reaction is?
CO2 + 2 H2O -> CH2O +H2O + O2
Flower beds need to be watered how?
Lightly but more frequently
Quick and dirty way to tell if you need to water?
Squeeze handful of soil, if to dry to form a ball needs water
Why should we not wait for plants to wilt to water?
Leaf tips curl up and burn, as well leaves can drop off
so we water in the morning to prevent evaporative loss but why else?
Water on leaves dries quick once sun comes up and thus reduces the risk of diseases such as mildew and rust
Trees and shrubs shouild be watered ____X per week in their first month and ______X a week for the remainder of the season. Then water them _______/______ for the second and third season
mature trees should be watered at their drip line, what is this?
soild below the most distant horizontalbranches, this is where feeder roots are concentrated in the upper 40cm of soil
In august watering of trees and shrubs should? Why? Then you shoukld?
to allow the woody tissue to harden for winter
several deep waterings before freeze up after leaves fall of, preventing dehydration in early spring
name 6 types of watering systems
problem with oscillating sprinklers
Water more at edge points where shanging direction
Important to install automatic drains to any fixed sprinklers because?
So if there is a freezing event the pipes dont burst
Pop up heads use what to pop up?
major pop up heads available?
Fan spray, rotary stream, spray or bubbler
fan spray heads emit a?
Fine sheet of water
ON lawn a pop up sprinkler may pop up __)__cm while in a flowerbed?
Fan spray pop ups operate at what psi? Cover what area?
Common issues with fan spray pop ups
Holes are small so nozzles tend to clog up
too much pressure produces a fog
to little pressure doesnt distribute well
infiltration rate is exceeded we see what sign?
Positives of rotary stream sprinklers
Economical for area covered
few materials for installation
When are bubblers used? drawbacks?
can do runoff or puddling if left too long
Other names for drip irrigation
Why is drip irrigation so effective?
Water applied directly to root zone
Foliage remaining dry in drip irrigation is good because
no problems with fungus
Problems with drip irrigation
failure of industry to provide as good design information as is available for sprinklers
cant see system
small oles can be plugged
line can be damaged by hoeing or tilling
compensating emmitters are needed when used on slopes
benefits of mulching
insulative quality protecting from heat cold drought and trampling
mulch may reduce evaporation at soil surface by?
Mulching doesnt damage roots but control s weeds this can be better than tilling especially with
Suckering trees nearby
MUlching absorbs impact of falling rain thus doing what?
Reducing compaction of soil surface and crust formation
reduces splash and keeps mufd off leaves reducing fungus
Define summer mulches, define winter mulches
Summer mulch = applied to soul after warmed to 20 degrees
winter mulch = mulches applied in fall to protect perennials from temperature extremes
minimum mulch depth is? max mulch depth is? What happens when exceeded
invites mice and may inhibit gas exchangre
best mulches for shrubs and trees (5)
evergreen needles and cone
A cubic meter of mulch spreads over how many sq meters
best mulch for annual and perennial flowerbeds
coarse peat moss
dutch elm disease is a? Spread via?
elm bark beetle laying its eggs on dead or dying elm branches
beetles are attracted to smell, elm chips will attract the beetles
Can you use elm bark chips in sask? other province of concern?
No must be burned or buried
Shredded bark or post peelings are byproducts of
Fence post manufacturing
Coarse sphagnum peat moss is available from
Drawback of decorative barks
Why is summer pruned chipper debris preffered?
Christmans trees often have tinsel in them
Generally chipper debris will last?
Drawbacks of sawdust?
Decomposition is rapid
sucks up nitrogen
fire hazard when dry
Sawdust best used as a mulch when?
perfect mulch for conifers?
Evergreen needles and cones
Should you let lower conifer branches to touch the ground?
Flax shives are from
Left after flax straw is used in paper manufacturing
BIg bonus of flax shives
Form a dense mat so are really good at stamping out weeds
excellent mulch for pereniall beds and tree or shrub borders
How far should mulch stop from the trunk of a tree or shrub and why?
to stop rodents from sheltering in mulch next to pant
Should you use leaves fallen from decidous trees?
Yes but it is mosty gone by the spring leaving behind great feretilizer (insect droppings)
name 3 inorganic mulches
landscape cloth is also often called?
Are rounded cobbles or crushed rock recomended as a mulch? Why?
MOnetary and labor costs
weeds must be removed by hand or wit herbicide
rocks become very hot in sunlight, impede tiolling and dont improve soil
Cheapest option for replacement of damaged lawns?
overseeding (2x recomended seeding rate) after adding 1cm of good organic material
Freshly planted grass should not be mowed until it is?
2 ways to apply seed?
Cyclone type bag spreader
push type centrifugal drop spreader
If weeds begin to grow in fresh seeded grass then you should
2cmWait atleast 8 weeks to add a selective herbicide like 2,4-D because it can hurt the seedlings
optimal sod thickness?
Sodding can be carried out throught most growing seasons as long as
Sod has time to root before freeze up
What should be added to the soil before laying the sod
A high phosphorus fertilizerr
What should be done as soon as sod is layed?
Roll it to reduce uneveness and bring in firm contact with soil
important to water freshly laid sod so that?
The sod pieces dont shrink and leave gaps
If an area settles and you wish to fuill with soil you should add
2cm per month to prevent overburden
As mowing height is reduced root mass
Also is reduced
grasses cut 7.5cm high are more______ than 2.5cm high
Best lawn cut?
Dull blades are bad for grass cutting because
Produce ragged cut and increaseing moisture loss
chemical of choice for killing vegetation in an area is
roundup is most efficient when?
During high growth phases
Complete killing by roundup can take 2 weeks, what follows?
Tilled into soil and new planting can be carried out after tillage
how long does 2,4-D need to be composted to be broken down?