COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY TWO

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COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY TWO
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COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY TEST TWO
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COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY TEST TWO
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  1. Biological Rhythms
    • cyclical activities or behaviors that are related to distinct
    • environmental features (ex. Day-Night cycles of light).
  2. Zeitgebers (ZG)
    the environmental stimuli that serve as “time givers.”
  3. Importance of timing:
    Enables ecological adaptation to seasonal temperature or humidity changes.

    Hibernation and migration

    Mating

    • Minimizing predation (don’t
    • go out when the predators are about)

    OR

    • Maximizing predation (for
    • the predator)
  4. Stonehenge
    For early humans, the development of agriculture eventually led to the development of early clocks and calendars
  5. 30% of human births occur at about
    3:00 am
  6. 30% of deaths occur at about
    5:00 am.
  7. types of biological rhythms
    BRs based on the Moon:


    BRs based on the Earth RE: the sun:
  8. BRs based on the Moon:
    Lunar;

    Tidal;

    Semi-annual Lunar Cycles;

    Seasonal Tides;

    Spring Tides
  9. Lunar
    Phases of the moon: 28 day cycle
  10. Tidal
    • tides occur approximately every 12.4 hours (peak to peak). Think of beach
    • animals
  11. Semi-annual Lunar Cycles:
    Seasonal Tides / Neap tides


    Spring Tides
  12. Seasonal Tides
    ( Neap tides)




    highest low tides, lowest high

    tides.
  13. Neap tides
    (Seasonal Tides)

    highest low tides, lowest high

    tides.
  14. BRs based on the Earth RE:
    the sun:
    Circadian Rhythms








    Free-running rhythms

    • Crepuscular
    • animals –
    • Circannual Rhythms

    Intermittent –
  15. Circadian Rhythms
    • (circa = circle = around;
    • dian = a day)





    • Circadian Rhythms (circa = circle = around;
    • dian = a day)



    Also known as the 24 hour clock or as Diurnal clock
  16. Diurnal clock
    Circadian Rhythms


    Also known as the 24 hour clock or as
  17. Circadian Rhythms (circa = circle = around;
    dian = a day)




    Diurnal vs. Nocturnal animals
  18. Free-running rhythms
    • tested without the
    • Zeitgeber






    Nocturnals decrease length (- 1 hour); Diurnals increase (+ 1 hour)
  19. Crepuscular animals –
    • active at dawn and at
    • duck.
  20. Circannual Rhythms –
    yearly cycles



    • Hibernation, migration, mating (young should be
    • born when resources are maximal).
  21. Intermittent
    – based on flooding, rainfall, hunger, etc.
  22. Endogenous Control Mechanisms
    – where is the internal pacemaker?
  23. Suprachiasmic
    n. of the hypothalamus (SCN)
    • The location of the
    • pacemaker varies in higher mammals
  24. what

    help reset the diurnal clock (Jet-Lag).
    There are non-visual cones in the retina that connect to the SCN
  25. Pineal gland
  26. In some amphibians and
    • reptiles, it is very close to the surface of the back (dorsal) aspect
    • of the head, in fact, in some, it can function as a third eye.
  27. Exogenous Control Mechanisms
    external zeitgebers = Cues



    • Day length, geomagnetics, tidal, temperature, variations in availability of
    • food.
  28. external zeitgebers
    • Exogenous Control Mechanisms
    • Cues



    • Day length, geomagnetics, tidal, temperature, variations in availability of
    • food.
  29. adaptive process
    • theory of why we sleep
    • sleep when its quiet and dark
  30. restorative force
    • theory of why we sleep
    • rejunvenate
  31. conservation of
    energy function
    • theory of why we sleep
    • let’s discard this theory since normal sleep saves only about
    • 110 calories (about one small cookie worth).
  32. EEG =
    electroencephalogram
    • measures electrical
    • activity of the
    • brain.
  33. Wavelength or Frequency:
    • Beta – high frequency (>
    • 13 cps = Hz)

    Alpha – 8 to 13 cps

    Theta – 4 to 7 Hz

    Delta - < 1 to 4 Hz
  34. Beta
    • wavelength:: high frequency (t> 13 cps = Hz)
    • amplitutde:: low ; Out-of phase neuronal firings
    • waves - asynchronous,


  35. Alpha –
    wavelength:: 8 to 13 cps

    higher amplitude

    synchronized.
  36. Theta
    • wavelenth:: 4 to 7 Hz
    • higher amplitude
    • synchronized.
  37. Delta -
    • wave lenth:: (< 1 to 4 Hz)
    • higher amplitude
    • synchronized.
  38. Synchrony –
    whether CNS neurons are firing at the same time...
  39. Stage 1 of Sleep
    • (Twilight, shallow sleep) –
    • some alpha & more theta
  40. Stage 2 of Sleep
    • lots of theta; also spindles & k-complex;
    • Lasts the longest…
  41. Stage 3 of Sleep
    • theta, less than 50% delta
    • Slow Wave
  42. Stage 4 of Sleep
    greater than 50% delta
  43. Stage 5 of Sleep
    • aka: Paradoxical Sleep;
    • aka: REM (Rapid Eye Movement)

    - lots of beta and a muscular paralysis.

    The brain is suddenly very active, yet the person is deeplynasleep.
  44. Paradoxical Sleep
    • 5th Stage of Sleep;
    • aka: REM (Rapid Eye Movement)


    - lots of beta and a muscular paralysis.

    The brain is suddenly very active, yet the person is deeplynasleep.
  45. REM (Rapid Eye Movement)
    • 5th Stage of Sleep;
    • aka: Paradoxical Sleep;

    - lots of beta and a muscular paralysis.

    The brain is suddenly very active, yet the person is deeplynasleep.
  46. Slow Wave Sleep
    • During the first four stagesof sleep, decreases in heart rare, body temperature, and brain activity are seen.
    • TheParasympathetic nervous system is very active.

    seems to weaken synapses
  47. alpha, theta, delta – Stages 3 & 4
    • Short Wave Sleep:
    • During the first four stages
    • of sleep, decreases in heart rare, body temperature, and brain activity are seen. The
    • Parasympathetic nervous system is very active.
  48. REM sleep
    noted beneath shut eyelids, the person is, for the most part, paralyzed.


    the Sympathetic nervous system is very active so we see increases in heart rate, etc.

    Humans report dreams

    found in all higher animals

    • Sleep because the presence of Beta indicates that the brain is actively
    • working, yet, the person is deeply asleep and paralyzed.
  49. Paradoxical sleep
    noted beneath shut eyelids, the person is, for the most part, paralyzed.


    the Sympathetic nervous system is very active so we see increases in heart rate, etc.

    (REM sleep)

    Humans report dreams

    found in all higher animals

    • Sleep because the presence of Beta indicates that the brain is actively
    • working, yet, the person is deeply asleep and paralyzed.
  50. “Synaptic Homeostasis”
  51. which postulates that only the strongest (more important?) synapses survive short wave
    sleep (seems to weaken synapses) ; a sort of neuronal Darwinism.
  52. Sleep
    • seem involved in replay of events and in editing (strengthening and weakening)
    • connections between neurons selecting for conversion to Long Term Memory
  53. ripples
    • while sleeping, overall brain activity
    • decreases, BUT very short bursts of activity are
    • generated by “Place-Denoting” neurons and played back in a sequential order
  54. hypocampus
    responsible for short term memory
  55. prefrontal cortex
    responsible for long term memory
  56. tetanus toxin
    blocks the conversion of Short Term Memory into Long Term Memory
  57. Adaptation
    • changes
    • that enhance the species survivability; the inherent capability of a species to adapt
    • to change
  58. Convergent
    Evolution -
    • two independent species exposed to similar
    • selection pressures evolve similar traits.
  59. some Evolutionary
    Stabile Strategies
    • mobbing
    • ground nesting
  60. Divergent Evolution –
    • two closely related species exposed to different selection pressures may
    • develop different strategies.
  61. Darwin’s Galapagos
    Finches
    • exhibit divergent evolution since they diverged to occupy unfilled
    • ecological niches.
  62. Adaptive
    Radiation
    • Because
    • of lengthy competitive evolutionary processes between species, the mainland
    • occupiers of various ecological niches will be more efficient; each niche will
    • be occupied by different species.

    FOUND IN: Galapagos, Hawaii and S. Pacific Islands
  63. Diversity of
    Anti-predator Mechanisms
    species typically

    • have
    • one well developed (optimal RE: Cost/ Benfits) defense with several backups.
  64. Avoiding
    Detection by predator
    • Requires
    • remaining motionless since many predators have excellent motion detectors.


    ex: zebra
  65. Camouflage
    = protective coloration = CRYPTSIS = cryptic coloration
  66. protective coloration
    Camouflage = CRYPTSIS = cryptic coloration
  67. CRYPTSIS
    Camouflage = protective coloration cryptic coloration
  68. cryptic coloration
    Camouflage = protective coloration = CRYPTSIS
  69. Blue
    jay study –
    Skinner box-like device… shaped to peck target

    • when
    • jay detected moths on various backgrounds.
    • Jays were 10 to 29% less correct when
    • the moths were camouflaged.
  70. Body Decorations
    attaching material to body for camoflage
  71. Aposematism
    Warnings:: signals emitted to warn of potential danger

    • to
    • predator – clear signal – BRIGHT easily seen and recognized colors.
  72. Mimicry
  73. of what….
    Environmental objects for camouflage, dangerous animals as in Batesian mimicry, distraction…
  74. Mullerian
    • mimicking
    • other dangerous species (mimic each other)
  75. Mertensian
    very poisonous mimic less poisonous.
  76. distraction/ misdirection
    • Related
    • to mimicry, an animal uses will confuse predators – butterflies with fake heads;
    • lizards’ detached tails that continue to writhe after detachment.
  77. Terminating pursuit
    • “Far
    • Side” cartoon of impalas with “Turbo” printed on side.
  78. Antelope
    “Stoting”
    when antelopes leap straight up and land with stiff legs to advertise their amarmed state and fitness
  79. Detection and
    Vigilance
    • sensory capabilities in prey have evolved to provide
    • optimal predator detection---
  80. Safe
    Distance Learning
    C/B analyses for both predator and prey
  81. Sleep as a predator awarness
    • ducks
    • may sleep on one side of their brain while one eye watches
    • for danger
  82. Interspecies
    cooperative vigilance as predator awarness
    differnt species watching out for one another, usually of a common predator

    Rhinos and Tickbirds

    Baboons and antelopes

    You and your dog.
  83. Use of a Sentry as a predator awarness
    "watch dog"
  84. Point
    • Species with
    • a diverse genetic endowment that provides a hierarchy of several defenses against
    • predation, are more likely to survive and then reproduce.
  85. Group defense
    musk ox in protective circles, mobbing, stampedes, flocking, schooling, warning cries.... balancing act to keep the best group size
  86. Dilution effects
    • decrease in probability of predator attack on any one
    • prey as group size increases.
  87. W. D. Hamilton
    • a early American sociobiologist
    • THE "SELFISH HERD"
  88. Selfish
    Herd
    groups whose members increase the probability of

    • escape by using the
    • herd as shield, distracter, or dilutor.
  89. Game theory
    • the fitness
    • payoff for an individual as it struggles to

    • reproduce,
    • depends upon the actions of other group members.
  90. Classic Prisoner’s Dilemma
    • A: Silent - B: Silent --> Each serve 6 months
    • A: Silent - B: Betrays --> A: 10 years - B: FREE
    • A: Betrays - B: Silent --> A. FREE - B: 10 years
    • A: Betrays - B Betrays --> Each seve 5 years
  91. Mechanical
    devices
    • moose antlers, spiny sea urchins, porcupine, hedgehogs, certain fish, hooves,
    • horns, teeth, etc.
  92. Noxious chemicals
    • skunks,
    • wasps, scorpions, caterpillar spray stinging spines (stone fish) and nematocyst
    • stingers in the Box Jelly fish
  93. Acquisition
    • increasing
    • the probability of a response through
    • the application of reinforcing stimuli.
  94. Extinction
    • lack of
    • reinforcement decreases the probability of a response until it doesn’t
    • occur any more.
    • The probability of a response is zero.
  95. Spontaneous
    Recovery
    • following extinction, time passes
    • and the response reappears.
  96. Stimulus
    Discrimination
    • Stimulus
    • a discriminative stimulus (SD)

    • signals the availability of a reward
    • or the presence of a predator.
  97. Stimulus
    Generalization
    • stimuli similar to the original stimulus
    • elicits the original response.
  98. Response
    Generalization and Discrimination
    • responses are not always identical. Some are more effective or efficient (produce more reinforcement), so
    • they tend to occur more often.
  99. Preparedness
    • a pre-wired
    • disposition to quickly learn in a specific situation (see earlier notes)
  100. Garcia and Taste Aversion
    • point – aversion is to the taste and smell,
    • not

    • visual or auditory stimuli associated with the
    • food.
  101. Insight Learning –
    Kohler with
    Chimpanzees

    Chimpanzees
    I have known:
    Tic-tac-toe,
    counting, match to sample, 3-D tracking, ABC
    Kohler with Chimpanzees

    • Chimpanzees
    • I have known:
    • Tic-tac-toe,
    • counting, match to sample, 3-D tracking, ABC
  102. Kohler
    Insight learning
  103. Latent Learning
    • Tolman and mice
    • interpreted this phenomenon as
    • learning without reinforcement, since they had evidently learned about the maze
    • during the initial non-reinforced activities.
  104. Tolman
    Latent Learning
  105. Metzgar
    Sceptical about the Latent learning "curiousity motive"

    • two groups of mice… one
    • allowed to

    • experience a
    • room, the other group, NOT.



    • Later when placed in the room with a
    • hungry owl, 2/20 of those experiencing the room earlier were caught; 11/20 of
    • the group with no prior exposure to the room were caught by the owl.
  106. Tinbergen
    incidental learning of stimuli around borrows by digger wasps…
  107. Learning Sets
    • Learning
    • how to learn--- experienced chimps vs naïve chimps.

    • “This
    • is a situation that perhaps if I do something, I might get reinforced.”
  108. Cultural Transmission
    Learning - in Social Situations




    • Observational
    • learning and then Imitation



    • Think
    • of infants imitating the facial expressions of adults.
  109. Reflexes
    • step on a
    • hot piece of charcoal---reflexively jerk foot away.
  110. Instincts -
    Courtship, Parental Care….
  111. Imprinting
    • hybrid
    • between instinct and learning
  112. Learning
    • based of
    • consequences, a stimulus comes to evoke or elicit a response.
  113. Lorenz
    • there are pre-wired, species-specific behaviors
    • (instincts).



    • Typically
    • required when a stimulus should produce a response the first time it is required.



    • In Lorenz’s (and Tinbergen’s) hydraulic model, variables were
    • hypothesized that relate to motivation, stimuli, and responses.



    • In many cases, learning was not
    • essential (i.e., pre-wired)
  114. Vacuum
    Activity
    • level of
    • Reaction Specific Energy build up and overflows, or,
    • a minimal

    Sign Stimulus is present.
  115. Displacement
    • blockage of
    • the usual Fixed Action Pattern …
    • Reaction Specific Energy flow triggers atypical behavior.
  116. Modal Action
    Patterns-
  117. it was noted that the Fixed Action
    • Pattern s may vary slightly, so Modal
    • Action Patternss are used instead (Modal
    • Action Patterns s are the most frequently occurring form of a Fixed Action Pattern)
  118. Lorenz
    was the first moving object around little goslings.
  119. “Fear-Locomotor
    Dichotomy”
    • The
    • probability of imprinting is determined by a Critical period where fear is
    • relatively low and motor ability is adequate.
  120. Environmental Information sensors
    Stationary Object detectors and Dark detectors
  121. Predator (Danger) sensors
    • Dimming detectors and moving object
    • detectors
  122. Food Sensors
    • Flies (erratically
    • moving small objects).
  123. central analyses
    • The
    • analysis of the visual information takes place in the brain, which, because of
    • its complexity, must be programmed and “costs” a lot to operate.
  124. Hydraulic Theory
    Lorenz’s (SS—IRM—FAP)
  125. Radial Nervous Systems
    • a string of
    • neurons are arranged in a ring around the periphery of the animal – often
    • paired with a nerve net.
  126. Bilateral Nervous systems
    • feature “ganglia” consisting of a number
    • of neurons grouped together- may have information processing, decision making,
    • or motor coordination functions.
  127. Thalamus
    • relay centers for sensory
    • and motor tracts;

    • information processing, coordination
    • of responses.
  128. Hypothalamus
    • – an area
    • consisting of densely packed nuclei

    • that
    • are bilaterally symmetrical.
  129. Dorsomedial n.
    • emotional behavior
    • (fear, rage, etc.)
  130. Preoptic n.
    Gender related differences
  131. Suprachiasmic n.
    • rhythmic cycles
    • (diurnal)
  132. hypothalamus
    is strongly involved in the endocrine system
  133. Mesencephalon
    • Sensory
    • analysis – input from receptors – also

    • involved in coordinating simple
    • responses to stimuli… orienting reactions, visual pursuit…
  134. Lateral Geniculate nuclei
    visual
  135. Medial Geniculate nuclei
    auditory
  136. Superior and Inferior
    Colliculi-
    reflexes associated with sound and sight...
  137. Hindbrain (Met &
    Myelencephalon)
    HR, attention, paths to and

    from higher CNS structures.
  138. Limbic
    System-
    a series of loosely interconnected structure first

    • noted
    • by Paul Broca.

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