chapter 12 radiography continue

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chapter 12 radiography continue
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  1. 4 types of Joint Movements
    –Circular

    –Angular

    –Gliding

    –Special Movements
  2. Circular (joint movement)
    • Arc-like rotation of a
    • structure around an axis


    Rotation: pivoting of a bone on its axis

    Circumduction: Moves the distal end of a bone in a circle, resulting in a conical-shaped motion

    • Supination: Lateral rotation of
    • the bones of the forearm so the palm of the hand is facing up or anterior.

    • Pronation: Medial rotation of
    • the bones of the forearm so the palm of the hand is facing down or posterior.
  3. Angular (joint movement)
    Bending,change of angle between long bone and two bones making up joint

    Flexion:Bending that decreases angle between two bones

    Extension Bending that increases the angle between two bones

    Abduction:Move away from the midline of the body

    • Adduction:Move
    • towards midline of the body
  4. Gliding
    Bone slides over another

    Patella over femur
  5. Special Movements
    Inversion–Turning plantar surface inward

    Eversion–Turning plantar surface outward

    Protraction–Moving part forward, anterior

    Retraction–Moving part backward, posterior

    Elevation–Moves part upward, superior

    Depression–Moves part downward, inferior
  6. Radiographic Position
    • Terms that describe the relationship of body parts to each other and to location or
    • orientation of body structures

    •Based on Anatomical Position
  7. Anterior
    forward or front portion of the body or body part
  8. Posterior
    backward or back portion of the body or body part; the opposite of anterior
  9. Caudal/caudad
    away from the head
  10. Cephalic/cephalad
    pertaining to the head; toward the head; the opposite of caudal
  11. Central
    pertaining to the middle area or main part of an organ or body part
  12. Peripheral
    away from the central mass of an organ, toward its outer limits; the opposite of central
  13. Distal
    • away from the source or point of origin; for example, the wrist is distal to the elbow,
    • being farther from the point of origin of the arm, which is at the shoulder
  14. Proximal
    toward the source or point of origin; the opposite of distal
  15. Dorsal
    • pertaining to the back part or surface of the body or part; the top surface of the foot;
    • or the back of the hand
  16. Ventral
    forward, front part; the opposite of dorsal
  17. External
    to the outside, at or near the surface of the body or a body part
  18. Internal
    deep, near the center of the body or a body part; the opposite of external
  19. Inferior
    below, farther from the head
  20. Superior
    above, toward the head; the opposite of inferior
  21. Lateral
    referring to the side, away from the center to the left or right
  22. Medial/mesial
    toward the center of the body or the center of a part; the opposite of lateral
  23. Palmar
    referring to the palm (anterior surface) of the hand
  24. Plantar
    referring to the sole of the foot
  25. Parietal
    referring to the walls of a cavity
  26. Visceral
    pertaining to organs
  27. Body Planes
    • -Sagittal
    • -Mid-sagittal
    • -Coronal
    • -Mid-Coronal
    • -Transverse/Horizontal
    • -Oblique
  28. Sagittal (body plane)
    Left and Right
  29. Mid-sagittal (body plane)
    Equal left and right parts
  30. Coronal (body plane)
    Anterior and Posterior
  31. Mid-Coronal (body plane)
    Equal Anterior and Posterior parts
  32. Transverse/Horizontal
    Inferior and Superior
  33. Oblique
    Any angle not included above
  34. Body Positions
    • –Prone
    • –Recumbent
    • –Supine
    • -upright
  35. Lateral position
    Placement of the body or body part with the sagittal plane parallel to the IR

    Named according to the side adjacent to the radiographic table or IR.
  36. Lordotic position
    Angulation of the coronal plane of the chest with the IR

    • Upright patient leans back so that only the dorsal aspect of the shoulders is in
    • contact with the IR.
  37. Oblique position
    • Body part or entire body is placed so that the coronal plane is not parallel with
    • the radiographic table or IR

    • Usually stated as a degree of rotation, either from a body plane or toward the affected
    • side.
  38. Projection
    Path of the CR from the radiographic tube and through the patient to the IR

    Most are named, in anatomic terms, by the CR entrance and exit points in the body
  39. Anteroposterior (AP) projections
    • CR enters the anterior surface and exits the posterior surface of the body or anatomic
    • structure
  40. Posteroanterior (PA) projections
    • CR enters the posterior surface and exits the anterior surface of the body or anatomic
    • structure
  41. Lateral projections
    Sagittal plane of the body or body part is parallel to the IR

    Named for the side of the patient that is nearest the IR

    • •Extremities
    • are  described with the lateral or medial
    • entrance and exit of the CR
    • (mediolateral or lateromedial)
  42. Oblique projections
    • Body is rotated so that the CR travels through the body on an oblique plane, rather
    • than following an anatomic plane.

    Named by the entrance and exit points of  the CR
  43. Axial projections
    • Longitudinal angulation
    • of the CR of 10 degrees or more

    Caudal or Cephalic
  44. Tangential projections
    Directing the CR to “skim” the profile of the anatomy
  45. Image Systems
    Film Screen: Limited Usage Film and Screen Cassette

    • Computed Radiography: Photostimulable
    • Phosphor Plates Cassette

    • Digital Radiography:Thin
    • Film Transistors Cassetteless
  46. Computed Radiography
    Cassette Based: Placed parallel with body part

    • Lengthwise: Long dimension is parallel with the long axis of the body part
    • Also known as Portrait

    • Crosswise: Long dimension is perpendicular with the long axis of the body part
    • _Also known as Landscape

    •Diagonal: For anatomy that will not fit lengthwise
  47. Collimation
    • Improves Image Quality
    • –Decreases scatter

    Reduces Patient Dose
  48. Placement on IR
    • •Exposure
    • field placement on the Image Receptor

    –Standard is only 1 image per plate

    •Advantages Allows the Radiologist easier post processing for each image

    •Improves image interpretation

    •More accurate diagnosis

    •Consistent appearance

    •Optimizes Viewing and Storage of the Image
  49. Alignment of Tube, Body Part, and Image Receptor
    All must be properly aligned

    Table top Convenient for patient

    Body part aligned with the IR

    Use the correct SID

    Minimum of 40”

    Align the Central Ray with the center of the body part

    Collimate All 4 edges should be within the boundaries of the IR

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