2014 MH Semester 2
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Explain the significance of the xa concept in Vietnamese rural society
The xa (village) is a Chinese word meaning 'place of spirit worship'. In Vietnamese culture, the concepts of family, religion, prosperity, life, death and land are essential xa values.
What was the xa based on?
It was based on kinship and mutual sharing in every aspect of life. Senior male members of any xa family held a titular (holding a title without having any real authority) position of importance, which enforced patriarchal values.
Identify and explain these Asian philosophies that influenced Vietnamese spiritual beliefs.
Vietnamese moral attitudes were influenced by the Chinese philosopher Confucius, the spirituality of the Buddha and the mysticism of Lao Tzu.
Assess the influence of European missionaries in Vietnam.
The European missionaries were attempting to destroy the peoples belief in the monarchy by exposing the rural culture to western ideals (French) that called for social change and government evaluation.
Why did France wish to gain a foothold in Indochina by 1850?
France remained a 'poor man' in Asia. It had no foothold in the far east. At the same time, Indochina was untouched, rich in resources, fragile and vulnerable.
What was La Mission Civilisatrice?
This was an Anglo/French belief, which constituted of wanting to Westernise Indigenous areas.
What was 'gunboat diplomacy'?
Gunboat diplomacy refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of naval power - implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force. It can for example refer to the intimidation of less powerful states into granting concessions through demonstrations of superior naval power.
Who was Sun Tzu? What was his main principles?
- Sun Tzu was a Chinese military general, strategist and philosopher. His main principles were:
- -capture your market without destroying it
- -avoid your competitors strength, and attack their weakness
- -use foreknowledge and deception to maximise the power of business intelligence
- -use speed and preparation to swiftly overcome the competitors
- -use alliances and strategic control points in the industry to "shape" your opponents and make them conform to your will.
- -develop your character as a leader to maximise the potential of your employees
The French arrived in Indochina
Vietnam is fully conquered by the French
Various rebellions against the French (1885, 1898, 1916, 1930) all of which were brutally crushed
Birth of Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh leaves Vietnam and travels to US, Britain and France
Outbreak of World War One
First Indochina war
not subject to another's authority or jurisidiction
It stands for Vietnam Quoc Dan Dang, (Vietnamese Nataionalist party)
Define VICHY French
A city in central France, during the regime of Marshal Philippe Petain, during World War II.
The action of changing from colonial to independent status
a sense of national identity developed from belonging to a group sharing common cultural, linguistic and historical ties
the practice of increasing a nation's power by taking control of other nations and their resources
Define Cold war
the period of political, economic and ideological rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union
an unskilled native labourer in India, China, and some other Asian countries
Define Corvee labour
Unpaid labour imposed by the state on certain classes of people, such as peasants, for the performance of work on public projects
Define Gendar merie
A force fo gendarmes (soldiers in France serving as an armed police force for the maintanance of public order)
Define guerrilla warfare
method of warfare in which small groups engage in surprise attacks on enemy facilities, troops and supply routes.
How did the plantation system change land ownership in Vietnam?
A group of workers, called 'coolies', represented displaced farmers who had lost their land because of the plantation system. Plantations earned enormous profits for French capitalists while the local workforce suffered. The loss of land made it hard for people to feed their families.
Why was rubber an important international commodity by 1914?
Latex, a white sap that is harvested from rubber trees, was an essential component in the manufacturing of automobile tyres. Major powers in Europe required vast amounts of rubber for their growing military arsenals. Enormous profits could be made
How did the Bank of Indochina and French investment change Vietnam's economy by 1939?
The Bank of Indochina was granted extensive and exclusive licenses that allowed it to control all economic development. French investors were awarded government contracts to reform Vietnam's simplistic agricultural system into money-intensive plantations that earned enormous profits. Taxes were made.
Evaluate French labour policies in Vietnam. In your response make reference to terms such as 'corvee' and 'coolie'
Forced labour or corvee was a common practice of the Nguyen Dynasty to create or maintain public works such as dams or roads. A second group of workers, called 'coolies', represented displaced farmers who had lost their land because of the plantation system. In order to survive, these coolies volunteered to work on government projects for low wages and few benefits.
The French maintained their control within Indochina through what army?
The French Army and Gendarmerie
What were peasants land used for? Discuss their pay too
Growing cash crops on plantations e.g rubber, tea. They were paid low wages for their labour.
By the 1930's, what was the percentage of peasants made to live as tenant farmers? Also by 1930, what was going on for the French?
- 70% of peasants
- Direct or indirect taxation was earning the French 50 million franes per annum.
Discuss the exportation of rice
The French exported Vietnamese rice for profit, even during times of famine, at the expense of the local peasant.
Corvee labour was used for?
building and maintaining public works eg. roads, dams
What was it like for peasants during French rule?
- Although roads, bridges, railways, schools, hospitals (infrastructure) were built these did little to benefit and alleviate the suffering endured by the peasants during French rule.
- Taxation was extensive! Peasants were struggling to feed families
The French established a monopoly over trade in what? And what'd they earn all together by 1930
They established a trade in salt, opium and alcohol which by 1930 earned them 500 million franes.
Who was Ho Chi Minh?
He was the leader of the North Vietnamese when war with America broke out.
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