AP_Chapter_2_Terms[1].txt

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AP_Chapter_2_Terms[1].txt
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2014-08-31 09:16:41
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AP Psych
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AP Psychology
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  1. Branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. 
    Biological Psychology
  2. Cells that build the body's information system.
    Neuron
  3. A fibers that receive info and conduct it towards the cell body.
    Dendrite
  4. Fibers that pass the messages along to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
    Axon
  5. Layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon.
    Myelin (sheath)
  6. A brief electrical charge.
    Action Potential
  7. Lvl of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
    Threshold
  8. The gap between the axon and the receiving neuron.
    Synapse
  9. Chemical messengers.
    Neurotransmitters
  10. Neurotransmitter that enables learning, memory, and muscle contractions.
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
  11. Natural opiates that are released in response to pain and vigorous exercise.
    Endorphins
  12. the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication
    network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central
    nervous systems.
    Nervous systems
  13. The brain and spinal cord.
    Central nervous system (CNS)
  14. The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
    Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  15. neural ‘cables” containing many axons. Part of
    the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system to muscles,
    glands, and sense organs.
    Nerves
  16. neuron that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS.
    Sensory neurons
  17. neurons that carry outgoing information from the CNS to the muscles and glands.
    Motor neurons
  18. CNS neurons that internally communicate and
    intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
    Interneurons
  19. Division of the PNS that controls the body’s skeletal muscles.
    Somatic nervous system (SNS)
  20. part of the PNS that controls the glands and
    muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses;
    parasympathetic division clams.
    Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  21. division of the ANS that arouses the body,
    mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
    Sympathetic nervous system
  22. division of ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy.
    Parasympathetic nervous system
  23. Simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory
    stimulus.
    Reflex
  24. interconnected neural cells. Networks can learn to produce certain results.
    Neural networks
  25. the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; set of gland that secrete hormones into bloodstream.
    Endocrine
  26. Chemical messengers, most are manufactured by
    the endocrine system.
    Hormones
  27. pair of endocrine glands above the kidneys that secretes
    epinephrine and norepinephrine, to arouse body in times of stress.
    Adrenal
  28. Part of endocrine system. Under the influence of
    the hypothalamus, it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
    Pituitary
  29. Tissue destruction.
    Lesion
  30. amplified recording of electrical waves that sweeps across the brain’s surface.
    Electroencephalogram (EGG)
  31. Visual display of brain activity that can detect
    radioactive forms of glucose.
    PET scan
  32. technique that uses magnetic fields and radio
    waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different
    types of soft tissue.
    MRI
  33. technique revealing blood flow and brain
    activity by comparing successive MRIs.
    fMRI
  34. oldest part and central core of the brain, responsible for automatic survival functions.
    Brainstem
  35. base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and
    breathing.
    Medulla
  36. nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
    Reticular
  37. brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of
    brainstem; directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex
    transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla.
    Thalamus
  38. “little brain” attached to the rear of the
    brainstem; its function include processing sensory input and coordinating
    movement output and balance.
    Cerebellum
  39. donut-shaped system of neural structures at the
    border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions,
    aggressions, and drives such as food and sex. Includes the hippocampus,
    amygdala, and hypothalamus.
    Limbic system
  40. lima bean-sized neural clusters that are
    components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
    Amygdala
  41. neural structure lying below (hypo) the
    thalamus; directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine
    system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotions.
    Hypothalamus
  42. intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells
    that covers the cerebral hemispheres; body’s ultimate control and information
    processing center.
    Cerebral
  43. cells in the nervous system that support,
    nourish, and protect neurons.
    Glial cells
  44. portion of the cerebral lying just behind the
    forehead; involved in speaking, muscle movements, making plans, and judgements.
    Frontal lobes
  45. portion of the cerebral lying at the top of the
    head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
    Parietal
  46. portion of the cerebral lying at the back of the
    head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the
    opposite visual field.
    Occipital
  47. the portion of the cerebral lying above the
    ears; which receives auditory information from the opposite ear.
    Temporal lobes
  48. area at the rear of the frontal lobes that
    controls voluntary movement.
    Motor cortex
  49. area at the front of the parietal lobes that
    registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
    Sensory cortex
  50. areas of the cerebral that aren’t involved in
    the primary motor or sensory functions; they’re involved in higher mental
    functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
    Association areas
  51. impairment of language, usually caused by left
    hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area or to Wernicke’s area.
    Aphasia
  52. controls language expression- area of the
    frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements
    involved in speech.
    Broca’s area
  53. controls language reception- brain area involved
    in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
    Wernicke’s area
  54. brain’s capacity for modification, as evident in
    brain reorganization following damage and experiments on the effects of experience
    on brain development.
    Plasticity
  55. large band of neural fibers connecting the two
    brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
    Corpus callosum
  56. condition which the two hemispheres of the brain
    are isolated by cutting the connected fibers (mainly those of the corpus
    callosum) between them.
    Split brain

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