Branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.
Cells that build the body's information system.
A fibers that receive info and conduct it towards the cell body.
Fibers that pass the messages along to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
Layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon.
A brief electrical charge.
Lvl of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
The gap between the axon and the receiving neuron.
Neurotransmitter that enables learning, memory, and muscle contractions.
Natural opiates that are released in response to pain and vigorous exercise.
the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication
network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central
The brain and spinal cord.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
neural ‘cables” containing many axons. Part of
the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system to muscles,
glands, and sense organs.
neuron that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS.
neurons that carry outgoing information from the CNS to the muscles and glands.
CNS neurons that internally communicate and
intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Division of the PNS that controls the body’s skeletal muscles.
Somatic nervous system (SNS)
part of the PNS that controls the glands and
muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses;
parasympathetic division clams.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
division of the ANS that arouses the body,
mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Sympathetic nervous system
division of ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy.
Parasympathetic nervous system
Simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory
interconnected neural cells. Networks can learn to produce certain results.
the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; set of gland that secrete hormones into bloodstream.
Chemical messengers, most are manufactured by
the endocrine system.
pair of endocrine glands above the kidneys that secretes
epinephrine and norepinephrine, to arouse body in times of stress.
Part of endocrine system. Under the influence of
the hypothalamus, it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
amplified recording of electrical waves that sweeps across the brain’s surface.
Visual display of brain activity that can detect
radioactive forms of glucose.
technique that uses magnetic fields and radio
waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different
types of soft tissue.
technique revealing blood flow and brain
activity by comparing successive MRIs.
oldest part and central core of the brain, responsible for automatic survival functions.
base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and
nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of
brainstem; directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex
transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla.
“little brain” attached to the rear of the
brainstem; its function include processing sensory input and coordinating
movement output and balance.
donut-shaped system of neural structures at the
border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions,
aggressions, and drives such as food and sex. Includes the hippocampus,
amygdala, and hypothalamus.
lima bean-sized neural clusters that are
components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion.
neural structure lying below (hypo) the
thalamus; directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine
system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotions.
intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells
that covers the cerebral hemispheres; body’s ultimate control and information
cells in the nervous system that support,
nourish, and protect neurons.
portion of the cerebral lying just behind the
forehead; involved in speaking, muscle movements, making plans, and judgements.
portion of the cerebral lying at the top of the
head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
portion of the cerebral lying at the back of the
head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the
opposite visual field.
the portion of the cerebral lying above the
ears; which receives auditory information from the opposite ear.
area at the rear of the frontal lobes that
controls voluntary movement.
area at the front of the parietal lobes that
registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.
areas of the cerebral that aren’t involved in
the primary motor or sensory functions; they’re involved in higher mental
functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
impairment of language, usually caused by left
hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area or to Wernicke’s area.
controls language expression- area of the
frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements
involved in speech.
controls language reception- brain area involved
in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
brain’s capacity for modification, as evident in
brain reorganization following damage and experiments on the effects of experience
on brain development.
large band of neural fibers connecting the two
brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
condition which the two hemispheres of the brain
are isolated by cutting the connected fibers (mainly those of the corpus
callosum) between them.