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What are the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex?
- glomerulosa (outer)
- reticularis (inner)
- sympathetic nervous
List the hormones made by each layer of the adrenal cortex.
- glomerulosa makes Aldosterone (mineralocorticoids)
- Fasiculata makes Cortisol (glucocorticoids)
- Reticularis makes Androgens (and glucocorticoids)
*All are steroid hormones
Adrenocortical hormones are made from cholesterol which is taken up from LDLs in the blood and stored in adrenocortical cells which are stimulated by?
What are the effects of ACtH to stimulate steroid hormone synthesis?
- ACTH binds to adrenocortical cells and signals transduction
- This moves cholesterol into mitochondria
- ACTH activates the enzyme that converts cholesterol to pregnenolone.
What are the carrier proteins in which steroid hormones bind to to move in the blood stream due to their hydrophobic nature?
coricosteroid-binding globulin and albumin
Clearance of steroids is by ____________________ and ________________________.
- hepatic metabolism
- renal excretion
What hormone causes Na+ and water retention, K+ excretion which increases extracellular fluid volume and increased blood pressure?
What all does Aldosterone do?
- 1. causes Na+ and water retention
- 2. K+ excretion
- 3. acts on all epithelial cells that exchange Na+ and water (kidney, GI tract, salivary gland)
- 4. causes synthesis of proteins (transporters, pumps) that facilitate Na+ and water movement across cell membranes
What are the actions of Aldosterone on the kidney?
- 1. increased reabsorption of Na+ at the collecting duct.
- 2. water retention
- 3. increased secretion of K+ into urine
- 4. increased secretion of H+ into urine
What are the 2 stimuli of Aldosterone?
- 1. Renin-Angiotensin system
- 2. blood level of K+