Managing Organizations - Chapter 8
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The result of the job analysis that specifies job range, depth, and relationships.
Quality of Work Life
A formal program that attempts to integrate employee needs and well-being to improve productivity, increase work involvement, and provide higher levels of job satisfaction.
A process of determining what tasks make up the job and what skills, abilities, and responsibilities are required of an individual to successfully accomplish the job.
Job design and redesign attempt to do what two things?
- a. to identify the most important needs of employees and the organization.
- b. to remove obstacles in the workplace that frustrate those needs.
Two vital purposes of Job Analysis
- a. specify the tasks that must be accomplished to complete a job.
- b. determine the skills and knowledge necessary to perform the tasks.
Five steps of a typical Job Analysis
- a. Examine how each job fits into the overall organization.
- b. Select the jobs to be analyzed.
- c. Collect data on the jobs to be analyzed.
- d. Prepare a job description.
- e. Prepare a job specification.
Step 4 of Job Analysis: Prepare a Job description
The job description is a written summary of the job: its activities, equipment required to perform the activities and the working conditions of the job.
Step 1 of Job Analysis: Examine how each job fits into the overall organization
This step involves creating or review the organization chart, focusing on the formal relationships among departments, jobs, and individuals.
Step 2 of Job Analysis: Select the jobs to be analyzed
Managers must zero in on the specific jobs to be analyzed and determine that jobs's unique functions within the overall organization.
Step 3 of Job Analysis: Collect Data on Jobs
Data must be collected on the characteristics of the job, the behaviors and activities it requires, and the necessary employee skills and knowledge.
Step 5 of Job Analysis: Prepare a job specification
A job specification is a written explanation of skills, knowledge, and abilities needed for the job. The key difference between a job description and a job specification is that the job description expands on the characteristics of the job, while the job specification expands on the characteristics of the person doing the job.
Describes outputs on certain parameters that are obtained by high performers.
The result of job analysis
Three characteristics specified by an effective job design
Range, Depth, and Relationships
The number of tasks assigned to a particular job.
The relative freedom that a jobholder has in the performance of assigned duties.
Perceived Job Content
The aspects of a job that define its general nature as perceived by the job holder as influenced by the social setting.
What can a manager change to improve job performance? Factors of job content.
- Job Design
- Individual Perception
- Social Setting
Job Characteristics - core dimensions that increase motivation, performance, and satisfaction.
- Skill variety: The degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work.
- Task identity: The degree to which the job requires completion of an identifiable task or output.
- Task significance: The degree to which the job has an impact on other jobs within the organization or related organizations.
- Autonomy: The degree to which the job provides the worker with freedom and discretion in setting work schedules, and in determining the appropriate means of doing the job.
- Feedback: The degree to which individuals are able to obtain data concerning the fulfillment of the job requirements.
The five key job characteristics create what levels of critical psychological states?
- experienced meaningfulness
- experienced responsibility
- knowledge of results
Purpose of job design
To encourage job performance
Job performance outcomes that have value to the firm and individuals
- Objective outcomes
- Personal behavior outcomes
- Intrinsic and Extrinsic outcomes
- Job satisfaction outcome
Measurable and quantifiable outcomes: e.g. Quantity and Quality, absenteeism, tardiness, turnover.
Account for the characteristics of the product, client, or service. for which the jobholder is responsible.
Personal Behavior Outcomes
- job holder reaction to work and reacts by attendance, or staying with the job. Physiological and health-related problems
- Stress related to job performance
- Accidents and occupationally related disease.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Outcomes
- Intrinsic outcomes are objects or events that follow from the worker's own efforts, not requiring the involvement of any other person. Clearly an outcome based on the actions of the worker.
- Extrinsic outcomes are objects or events that follow from the workers' own efforts in conjunction with with other factors or persons not directly involved in the job itself.
A jobholder's satisfaction based on levels of intrinsic and extrinsic outcomes and the way the jobholder views those outcomes.
- People with job involvement differ in the extent that
- 1. Work is a central life interest
- 2. They actively participate in work
- 3. They perceive work as central to self-esteem
- 4. They perceive work as consistent with self-concept.
- Person's not involved in work don't understand this.
Job Rotation - Redesigning Job Range
Rotating an individual from one job to another to enable the individual to complete more job activities because each job includes different tasks.
Job Enlargement - Redesigning Job Range
A job strategy that focuses on despecialization, or increasing the number of tasks that an employee performs
Job Enrichment - Redesigning Job Depth
A strategy that seeks to improve performance and satisfaction by building more responsibility, more challenge, and a greater sense of achievement into jobs.
Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation
Factors which meet individuals' need for psychological growth, especially responsibility, job challenge, and achievement, must be characteristic of their jobs. The application of the theory is termed "Job Enrichment"
According to Job Enrichment, managers can provide greater opportunities to exercise discretion by making what changes
- Direct feedback: The evaluation of performance should be timely and direct.
- New learning: A good job enables people to feel that they are growing. All jobs should provide opportunities to learn.
- Scheduling: People should be able to schedule some part of their own work.
- Uniqueness: Each job should have some unique qualities or features.
- Control over resources: Individuals should have some control over their job tasks.
- Personal accountability: People should be provided with an opportunity to be accountable for the job.
A job arrangement in which two part-time employees perform the job duties and tasks that otherwise would be completed by one full-time employee
A job arrangement that permits employees the option of selecting their starting and quitting times, provided that they work a certain number of hours a week.
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