Reactions that absorbs energy as they occur I'll called....
Reactions that give off energy as they occur are called....
Three components needed for a fire to occur are .....
Oxygen, fuel, and heat
The fire tetrahedron contains four elements which are ....
-Self-sustained chemical reaction
......Fuels such as hydrogen or magnesium do not contain carbon.
........ fuels contain carbon.
A fuel may be found in any of three physical states of matter: solid, liquid, or gas. For flaming combustion to occur, fuels must be in the .... state.
Fuel gases and vapors are created from solid fuels by .....: the chemical decomposition of a substance through the action of heat.
...... is the ratio of the mass of a given volume of liquid compared with the mass of an equal volume of water at the same temperature.
The temperature at which a liquid releases sufficient vapors to ignite but does not sustain combustion: commonly used to indicate that flammability hazard of liquid fuel.
The primary oxidizing agent in most fires is.....
...... are not combustible but like oxygen will support combustion.
...... ignition occurs when a mixture of fuel and oxygen encounters an external heat source with sufficient heat energy to start the combustion reaction.
.......temperature is the temperature to which the surface of a substance must be heated for ignition and self sustained combustion to occur
What is the most common heat energy source in combustion reaction?
Chemical heat energy is the most common source of heat and combustion reaction
The transfer of heat within an object or to another object by direct contact, in other words, heat flow through and between solids.
The transfer of heat energy from a fluid (liquid or gas )to a solid surface.
The transmission of energy as a name electromagnetic wave such as lightwaves, radiowave, or x-rays, without an intervening medium.
As a temperature of the heat source increases, the radiate energy increases by a factor to the .....power. Doubling the temperature increases radiant heat by a factor of 16
A byproduct of the incomplete combustion of organic carbon containing materials. This gas is probably the most common product of combustion encountered and structural fires.
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Produced in the combustion of materials containing nitrogen and is a significant byproduct of the combustion of poly urethane foam commonly used and furniture and bedding. Is also commonly encountered in smoke, although a lower concentration then CO.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
A product of complete combustion of organic materials, is not toxic in the same manner as CEO or HCN, but acts as a simple affixing by displacing oxygen.
Carbon dioxide (co2)
Involves oils and greases normally found in commercial kitchens and food preparation facilities using deep fryers.
Class K fires
Through a process known as ....., these agents turn fats and oils into soapy foam that extinguishes a fire.
The .....layering of gases is the tendency of gases to separate into layers according to temperature. Other terms sometimes used to describe this tendency are heat stratification and thermal balance.
The .... and .... of a solid fuel relative to the source of heat also effects the way it burns. For example if one corner of sheet of 1/8 inch plywood panel is lie horizontally flat is ignited, firewood
Distribution and orientation
The transformation of a liquid to a vapor or gaseous state.
Pressure produced or exerted by vapors that a liquid releases.
Flammable liquids have a flashpoint of less then 100°F. Combustible liquids have a flashpoint that are greater than 100°F
A liquids exposed ....... also influences how quickly it liquid will be vaporize.
The extent to which a substance, in this case a liquid, will mix with water
- Materials that are miscible in water will mix and any portion.
At normal ambient temperatures 70°F or 21°C, materials can ignite and burn at oxygen concentration as low as .... percent.
Heat generated has electric current passes through a conductor such as the copper wire. This type of energy is generated temperatures high enough to ignite any combustible material is near the heated area.
Electrical heat energy
A form of heat energy generated by friction or compression. The movement of two surfaces against each other.
Mechanical heat energy
The transfer of heat within an object or to another object by direct contact: in other words, heat flow-through and between solids.
Transfer of heat energy from a fluid, liquid or gas to a solid surface ,
Transmission of energy as an electromagnetic wave, such as lightwaves, radio waves, or X rays without any intervening medium.
Pull stations mounted on a wall or column so that it's bottom is no less than .... feet and no more then ..... feet from the floor
- 3 1/2 feet from the floor
- 4 1/2 feet from the floor
Stairs are .... inches wide.
44 inches wide
Stairs with less than .... people are .... inches wide
- 50 people
- 36 inches
Doors are .... inches wide not more than .... inches wide
- 32 inches wide
- 48 inches
Floor exit signs are .. to .. inches above the floor
6 to 8 inches above the floor
Letters on exit signs are at least ... inches
A ... alarm, which are in locations such as hospitals where panic is high. This system response initially with a .... that alerts emergency personnel before the general occupancy is notified
A ... alarm system is designed to transmit both .... and audible alarms on an immediate premises served by the system.
A local alarm System
The ... plan indicates how building/structures are situated with respect to other structures and streets in the area.
The .... is a rough drawing of a occupancy that is made during a inspection
A .... is a street closed at one end designed to the minimum dimensions as required by the municipality.
A .... allows a vehicle to back into the space and turn around.
A ..... fire alarm system is connected to municipal fire alarm system.
Auxiliary fire alarm system
The type of smoke detector that is best suited for living rooms and bedrooms is the .....
Photo electric smoke detector
changes in the humidity and atmospheric pressure in the room can cause an ..... to malfunction and initiate a false alarm.
Ionization type smoke detector
A .....is used to protect large commercial and industrial buildings, high-rise structures
The maximum travel distance to a extinguisher for a class A is .... feet
A extinguisher with a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds should be installed so that the top of the extinguisher is no more than ... feet
A extinguisher with a gross weight greater than 40 pounds, except wheeled types, should be installed so that the top of the extinguisher is no more than .... feet.
3 1/2 feet
Clearance between the bottom of extinguisher and the floor should never be less than ....?
The purpose of ..... communication system is to provide a reliable communications system for residents and firefighters.
The water supply for a class I and class III standpipe system must provide ... GPM for at least ... minutes, with a residual pressure of ...PSI.
- 30 minutes
- 100 PSI
For a class II standpipe system, ..... GPM must be provided for at least 30 minutes with residual pressure of at least ... PSI
- 100 GPM
- 65 psi
For a class II and class III service, the minimum riser is ....inches, for buildings height less than 100 feet and ... inches for heights over
- 4 inches
- 6 inches
Class A ramps are ... inches width of slope of 1 to 10 and class B ramps are ...inches with a slope of 1 to 8.
Firefighters have historically called this mushrooming, in scientific or engineering terms this process is referred to as .....
Forming a ceiling jet
A ...... system is similar to an
auxiliary system in that it is connected directly to the fire department dispatch center or other approved answering service.
Remote station system
A ...... system is basically the same as a proprietary system. The difference is that instead of the receiving point on the premises, the receiving point is ....., contracted service point
-Central station system
The .... ..... leads from a occupied portion of a building or structure to the exit.
Pathway leading from inside inside
Occupied room or space
The .... ...exist between determination of the exit and the public way.
The exit discharge
A ..... .... is a street, alley, or similar parcel of land essentially open to the outside that is used by the public.
The .... .... is used to show both the number of floors in a building and grade around the building
Standpipes are required in buildings that are over .. stories in height.
Doors serving as a component of a means of egress must be at least ... inches wide, but no more than ... inches wide, to provide a minimum of ... inches of clear in obstructed
-Doors 36 inches wide
-No more than 48 inches wide
-Clear and unobstructed width 32 inches wide
Exit .... are designed to connect a interior exit stair to a exit door on the exterior of the structure.
Travel distances to the nearest pull station may not exceed ....feet
Draft curtains or curtain boards are:
- .....percent of ceiling height
- they should not extend below ...feet
-should not exceed .. times of the ceiling height
The ... ...., is that portion of means of egress that leads to an exit.
And FPA 72 requires that pull stations be placed within ...feet of every exit so that facility occupants can activate an alarm while they are exiting the facility.
Multistory facilities should have at least ... pull station on each floor.
According to NFPA 72, the pull station should be mounted on walls or columns so that the operable part is no less than ....feet and no more than ....feet above the floor.
3 1/2 feet
4 1/2 feet above the floor
Materials stored inside May not be stacked closer than ... feet from the ceiling in buildings without automatic sprinkler system or at least ... inches below sprinklers and buildings with sprinkler systems.
- 2 feet
- 18 inches
Cooking equipment must have a clearance of at least ... inches from any combustible material unless it is specially designed for a lesser clearance.
The freeboard should never be less than ... inches.
All tanks should have drains to protect from overflow, particularly those that contain ... gallons of quench
oil or more.
Any tank over .... gallons must have a bottom drain that opens automatically or manually in event of a fire.
......means of dust control include providing enclosures for conveyors belts or reducing the speeds at which grains are moved through the facility on conveyor belts or through chutes.
Passive dust control
..... dust controls are usually mechanical dust collecting systems that are capable of collecting 99.5%
of dust and storing it in bins outside the facility.
Active dust controls
Changing .... Is one of the most significant factors in changing fire behavior
A ..... is a street, alley, or similar parcel of land essentially open to the outside that is used by the public. A ..... must have minimum width and height of ... feet.
- Public way
- 10 feet
A ..... leads from an occupied portion of a building or structure to the exit.
Ex: a corridor leading to the exit opening, Aisle within an assembly, pathway leading from inside a space to an exit, Unenclosed ramp or stairs, occupied room or space
The .... is separated from the area of the building from which escape is to be made.
If panic hardware is required, occupants should be able to cause the latch to release by applying a force of not more than .... pounds and set the door and motion by applying a force of not more than ... pounds.
- 30 pounds
The construction that encloses the exit must have at least a ... hr. minimum fire resistance rating when the exit 3 stories or less.
When the exit connects four or more stories, the separating construction must have a fire resistance rating of at least ...hours.
Because they are extremely unsafe and unreliable, external .... may not be used as any part of a means of egress the new construction.
Fire escape stairs
In most cases, all of the codes require that there be at least ... exits from any balcony, mezzanine, story, or portion thereof that has a occupant load of 500 persons or less.
For occupant loads greater than 500 persons, generally the minimum of ... separate exits are required with four or more required at thousand people.
If structures are less than 2000 ft.² in the area and no more than one story in height, the minimum quantity based on the flow rate for two sprinklers times ... minutes of operation.
The water supply for class I and class III standpipe systems must provide minimum flow rate of .... GPM for at least ..... minutes, with residue pressure ... PSI.
- 500 GPM
- 30 mins
- 100 psi
For class I and class III service, minimum riser is ... inch pipe for building heights less than 100 feet and .... inch pipe for heights over 100 feet.
- 4 inch
- 6 inch
For class II service, a riser could be ... inches for a building height less than 50 feet and for a building over 50 feet in height, the minimum riser size is ... inches.
- 2 inches
- 2 1/2 inches
Class II systems in a building over 275 feet in height must be ... into sections.
Buildings with with class I or class III systems maybe required to have a ... inch outlet on the roof.
2 1/2 inch
According to NFPA 72, pull station should be mounted on walls or columns so that the operable part is no less than .... feet and no more then .... feet above the floor.
- 3 1/2
- 4 1/2
NFPA 72 also requires that pull stations be placed within .... feet of every exit so that facility occupants can activate an alarm while they are exiting the facility
The heights of stacks not exceed ... feet to ensure that they remain relatively stable.
In healthcare facilities, emergency evacuation drills are conducted ..... on each shift, and every member of the staff must participate.
Inspector should use consistent logical approach to determining the means of egress one both new and existing structures. One approach would be to follow a series of steps when calculating the requirements. These steps are as followed:
-if egress capacity is sufficient
What size are primary feeders (arterial mains)?
16 to 72 inches
what size are secondary feeders (intermediate pipes)?
12 to 14 inches
What size distributors (small water mains)?
6 to 8 inches
The maximum lengths of valve spacing should be ... feet in high value districts and .... feet in other areas as recommended by commercial risk services, Inc.
500 feet in high value
800 feet in other areas
Municipal hydrants are painted .....
Privately owned hydrants are painted ......
The use of ..... to designate hydrants with nonportable water has also been established.
Valve has a yoke on the outside with threaded stem or screw...
Outside stem and Yoke
A valve that has a hollow metal post attached to the valve housing. The valve stem inside the post has a target on which the words are open or shut appears
Post-indicator valve (PIV)
This about is similar to the post-indicator valve except that it extends horizontally through the wall......
Wall post-indicator valve
similar to the Post-indicator valve except that it uses a butterfly valve.....
Post-indicator valve assembly ( PIVA)
NFPA 72 requires that pull stations be placed within ... feet of every exit so that facility occupants can activate an alarm while they are exiting the facility.
Driveways must be spaced so that a maximum grid system of not more than 50 by .... feet is produced
Three primary storage methods are:
-solid piling (least chance of fire to develop)
Materials stored inside may not be stacked closer then feet from the ceiling in building without automatic sprinkler system or at least .... inches below sprinklers and buildings with sprinkler systems.
- 2 feet without sprinkler systems
- 18 inches with sprinkler systems
(HVAC) In very large systems, mechanical equipment such as the heater itself must be located in a room that is separate from the rest of the building with a minimum of .... hour fire resistance wall and door rating.
For class II service the riser could be ....inches for building high less than 50 feet. For building over 50 feet in height, the minimum riser size is ...... inches. Class two systems and buildings over 275 feet it must be ......
- 2 inches
- 2 1/2 inches
Current practice is to locate standpipes so that any part of floor is within ..... feet of the standpipe hose connection.
Letter/labeling System for ordinary combustibles
A / green triangle
Letter/Symbol Labeling System for Flammable Liquids
B / Red square
The geometric shape to identify electrical equipment is:
he geometric shape to identify combustible metals is:
￼ The geometric shape to identify cooking media is:
Flammable liquids have a flashpoint that is ....then hundred degrees Fahrenheit.
Combustible liquids have a flash that is ....... then hundred degrees Fahrenheit.
A liquid exposed ..... area also influences how quickly a liquid would vaporize.
The extent to which a liquid will mix with water.
........ is classified as the fire-gas ignition, and may be an indicator of developing flashover conditions requiring immediate action by firefighters to prevent that from occurring.
When an incipient fire Continues to burn, a plume of hot gases and flames rises from the fire and mixes with cooler air in the room. As this plume reaches the ceiling, hot gases begin to spread horizontally across the ceiling and what firefighters have historically called mushrooming; in scientific or engineering times this process is referred to as .......
Forming a ceiling jet
When water is converted to steam at 212°F, it expands approximately .... times and can cool a much larger area..
Fuel removal: What is the simplest method of fuel removal for a fire?
Allow the fire to burn
Oxygen exclusion: in its simplest form, this method is used to extinguish kitchen range top fires when a ..... is placed on a pan of burning grease. The chemical range hood suppression system also at in a similar fashion.
An ....... Occupancy is any building, structure, or compartment that is used for gathering of 50 or more person. This includes general classification, including churches, synagogues, mosque, theaters, restaurants, and
Assembly under different standards:
Class A: over 1000
Class B: 301 to 1000
Class C: 50 to 300
An educational occupancy is any building or portion of a building that is used for the purpose of education of ... or more persons from preschool through the 12th grade.
Six or more
NFPA 101, building inspections and safety code, describes an educational occupancy as a structure that is used by six or more persons through 12th grade that meets for ... or more hours in a day or more than ... hours in a week.
-Four or more
- 12 hours in a week
It is possible to dry lumber to any moisture content, but most structural lumber has a moisture content ...or less.
19% or less
Concrete block: the most commonly used is the nominal ...... block.
8x8x16 inch block
The single most important factor in determining the ultimate strength of concrete is the .... to .... ratio.
Water to Cement ratio
Aluminum has a melting point of ..... and under fire conditions will melt and drip.
A ...... roof construction allows builders to provide overhanging roofs over walkways along the exterior walls of a structure.
When the Masonary wall is constructed, the Masonary units are laid side-by-side in horizontal layer known as a .......
The horizontal courses of bricks are laid on top of each other in a vertical later known as the .....
When bricks are placed end to end, they create a ..... Course
When the bricks are placed vertically on the end, a ..... course is created.
One means of providing a horizontal bond between the Wythe is to place a course of breaks across two wythes with the ends of the bricks facing outwards. A course of bricks laid in this manner is known as a ..... course
Horizontal exits: commonly used in high-rise buildings in hospital as a means of passing through fire barrier wall that separates 25 compartments in a structure. These exits require by walls or fire barrier walls with at least a ..... hour fire resistance rating.
Horizontal exits may be substituted for other exits if they do not compose more than ... percent of the total exit capacity of the building.
These are large pipes, also known as arterial mains,with relatively widespread spacing. Arterial mains can be very large, beginning at 16 inches and extending to 72 inches in diameter or greater.
These are intermediate pipes that interconnect with primary feeder lines to create a grid. They are 12 to 14 inches in diameter.
These are small water mains, 6 to 8 inches in diameter, that serve individual fire hydrants and commercial and residential consumers.
Steel floor support systems are frequently protected using a suspended insulating ceiling tile known as a ....... ceiling.
At least one large four or four and half inch outlet often referred to as the ......
Pumper outlet nozzle or steamer connection
Hydrant specifications require a ...... Valve opening for standard three-way hydrants and a .... connection to the water main.
Hydrant inspections should occur at least ...
Twice a year
Of these water based fire suppression systems, automatic sprinkler, Waterspray, water mist, and foam water systems are designed to control, contained, or extinguish fires in the ..... stage.
Incipient stage pg.339
continually charged with water under pressure that discharges immediately when one or more sprinklers are activated by heat from a fire.
Wet pipe sprinkler system
Continually charged with air or nitrogen under pressure.
Dry pipe sprinkler system
Consist of open sprinklers attached to unpressurized dry pipes. This system is activated when detection device and the protected area senses via an open the water flow control valve to the system. All sprinklers discharge water simultaneously.
Deluge sprinkler system
Continually charged with air that may or may not be under pressure. The system only operates when both a sprinkler opens the and a detection device in the same area activate the water flow control valve.
Wet pipe system that uses the sprinkler system to circulate water or non-fire protection building services such as heating or cooling. It is a closed system in which water is not removed from the system unless the sprinklers are activated.
Circulating closed loop sprinkler system
System that is designed to operate repeatedly in response to a detection device. The system turned on and off based on the demand indicated by the detection device.
Multi-cycled sprinkler system
System of interconnected Crossmain that provide multiple routes for water to reach any point in the system. This system is common design because of the advantage of waterflow from multiple directions.
Looped Sprinkler system
System of parallel cross mains connected together by multiple branch lines....
Gridded sprinkler system
A ..... system is electrically connected to an integral part of the municipal fire alarm system and depends on the municipal system's source of electric power.
FICE pg. 289
When two exits are required, they are to be located not less than ..... the length of the overall diagonal dimension of the room or building space.
Fire hydrants are rarely attached directly to these mains.