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Maximum Braking Speed
maximum speed from which the aircraft can be brought to a stop without exceeding the maximum design energy absorption capability of the brakes (3.96 million foot-pounds total)
Maximum Abort Speed
- Maximum speed at which an abort may be started and the aircraft stopped within the remaining runway length.
- Allows for 3 sec reaction at Max abort speed to recognize and select idle power
- Acceleration continues and accounts for 20 knot increase in indicated Airspeed
- Allows for another 3 sec to apply the brakes after idle power
What kind of braking do the Landing Roll Charts assume?
Runway Condition Reading (RCR)
measure of the breaking friction coefficient. This value is used to define the braking characteristics for various runway surface conditions.
26 is the max and 2 is the least.
Dry– 23; Wet – 12; Icy – 05
AFTO FORM 781
- most serious of the symbols
- indicates the aircraft is unsafe or unserviceable and will not be flown or used until the unsatisfactory condition is corrected and/or the symbol is cleared.
- Only authorized servicing personnel can clear this symbol
- aircrew can never clear or downgrade a X.
- Requires one person to sign off on the work and another to sign off on the inspection of the work.
- entered on top of a red symbol to indicate the discrepancy has been corrected.
- entered in place of a red symbol on the status page if theree are no discrepancies noted for the aircraft
AFTO Form 781
- Indicates condition of specific equipment or aircraft system is unknown and a more serious condition may exist.
- Usually an overdue inspection.
- Does not normally ground the aircraft, but it can if the situation is bad enough to affect airworthiness.
- Do not have to accept the aircraft if you feel you cannot complete the mission or if it affects safety of flight.
- Signed off by the person who accomplishes the corrective action by signing off the inspected box.
RED DIAGONAL /
- discrepancy exists with one or more pieces of equipment
- not urgent or dangerous enough to ground the A/C
- / is cleared by the person who corrects the problem and enters signature in CORRECTED BY box
- PIC not required to accept the A/C if not able to complete the mission safely
how long is the Pre-Flight Inspection (PR) Valid?
Valid for 48 hours unless aircraft has flown, then it is valid until the end of the day.
EXCEPTIONAL RELEASE (ER)
- Serves as a certification that an authorized individual has reviewed the aircraft form and determined the aircraft is safe for flight.
- ER is good for the entire day unless aircraft status changes. Rated PIC can sign their own ER, but is only valid for the PIC's flight and must be re-accomplished for additional sorties. (cannot sign an ER for another pilot or student)
- SOLO students can never sign ER
If in the ____ start mode, the PMU should detect hot, hung, and no start conditions and terminate the start sequence.
AUTO start mode
if ITT appears likely to exceed ____ degrees, you should manually abort the start. This is known as a ___ start.
When should you manually abort the start? (3 times)
- 1. if the normal N1 increase is halted (hung start)
- 2. if no rise of the ITT is evident within 10 seconds after fuel flow indications or N1 after 5 seconds (no start)
- 3. ITT appears likely to exceed 1000 degrees, you should manually abort the start. (HOT START).
If a battery start was aborted what do you need to do?
connect external power and motor the engine
if a start using external power is aborted (PMU or MANUAL) can we restart?
no, do not attempt another restart.
Battery bus inoperative
Generator Bus inoperative
Cockpit over-pressurization, pressure exceeds 3.9 +/- .1 PSI
Fuel pressure below 10 psi
Oil pressure at or below 15 psi, or oil pressure 15 - 40 psi for 5 sec @ idle
OBOGS system malfunctions
Engine chip detector indicates oil contamination
cockpit pressure altitude above 19,000'
Environmental duct or defog duct above 300o F
HYDR FL LO
Hydraulic reservoir fluid level below 55 cubic inches (1 quart)
BUS TIE switch open, or bus tie inoperative
Fuel Imbalance exceeds 30 lbs, or fuel probe or EDM fail
EHYD PX LO
Emergency Hydraulic Pressure at or below 2400psi
OBOGS temperature above 200o F
Rudder trim aid device failure
L FUEL LO
R FUEL LO
Left/Right wing tank below 110 lbs usable fuel
PMU has detected and accommodated a fault in flight or WOW switch failure
- Oil pressure 15-40 psi for 5 seconds @ idle
- Oil pressure 40-90 psi for 10 seconds above idle
M FUEL BAL
FUEL BAL switch in MANUAL position
PCL position for auto start
BOOST PUMP selected by switch, starter relay, or low pressure switch
Dual Only Maneuvers:
- 1. Stalls
- 2. Stab Demo
- 3. NH/NL Recoveries
- 4. NTA ops
- 5. OCF recoveries
- 6. ELP’s or simulated
- 7. Engine-out maneuver
- 8. NF patterns or landings
- 9. Straight-in
- 10. Slow flight
- 11. Rolling takeoffs
- 12. Low closed
- 13. AOA pattern
Max Airspeed changes at _____ ft. MSL
Angle of Attack:
Range =___ units
Endurance = ___ units
Optimum = ___ units
- Range 4.9
- Endurance 8.8
- Optimum 10-11
- Red = 18
- 1. Inverted Stalls
- 2. Inverted Spins
- 3. Aggravated Spins past two turns
- 4. Spins with the PCL above idle
- 5. Spins with landing gear, flaps or speed brake extended
- 6. Spins with PMU off
- 7. Spins below 10,000 feet PA
- 8. Spins above 22,000 feet PA
- 9. Abrupt cross-controlled (snap) maneuvers
- 10. Aerobatic maneuvers, spins, or stalls with a fuel imbalance greater than 50 pounds fuel imbalance
- 11. Tail slides.
JOKER/BINGO FUEL DEFINITIONS
JOKER FUEL: pre briefed fuel state needed to terminate an event and transition to the next phase of flight.
BINGO FUEL: pre-briefed fuel state that allows the aircraft to return to the base of intended landing of an alternate, if required, using pre-planned recovery parameters and arriving with normal recovery fuel.
Min Fuel/Emergency Fuel (numbers & when to declare)
- Min Fuel = 150lbs (200lbs on solo student syllabus sorties)
- Emergency Fuel = 100lbs or less
- Declare when it becomes apparent the fuel remaining at final touchdown will be less than the requirements indicated in the definitions above. After declaring min/emer fuel add the fuel status call and amount of fuel remaining (in minutes) to each new air traffic control facility. Once established in the local traffic pattern, add fuel status with each radio transmission.
how do you call up the nearest airports in an emergency?
- Press the NRST button
- Use right knob in the OUT position to scan to other airports
- Use right know in the IN position to view all eight airport pages for the selected airport
how do you calculate altitude required for an ELP? How much altitude does a 360 deg turn at 30deg lose? 45deg? 60 deg?
- High Key = (DME/2) + 4
- Low Key = (DME/2) + 2.5
- 30deg turn = 2000' loss
- 45deg turn = 1500'
- 60deg turn = 1000'
what is a bounce?
Similar to ballooning, but caused by striking the runway hard. If bounce was not severe, continue the landing. If bouncing is severe, immediately go-around. Leave landing gear extended if it was a hard landing
what is a porpoise?
Nose wheel contacts runway before main gear. If proposing occurs immediately establish a nose-high attitude and PCL to MAX. Do not try to counter bounces with stick. If initiating a go-around after porposing do not raise gear.
- Occurs whenever a rolling skidding tire does not displace water of slush fast enough to permit the complete tire footprint area to contact the runway surface
- Can occur in less than 0.1" of slush or water
- select flaps up after landing to increase weight on wheels to improve braking
- Ground speed and tire pressure are the primary factors
- results in a marked decrease of the coefficient of friction between the tire and the runway; thus decreasing or eliminating the brake effectiveness
- Stopping distances increases
- Min Total Hydroplaning speed is dependant on tire inflation pressure (9 x sqrt of tire inflation px)
- can occur above 85 knots for nose tire 115 knots for main tires
Wet Runway landing?
- landing should be done with caution
- flaps may not be desirable on wet or icy runway
- 9 x the square root of the tire pressure is hydroplaning speed (approx. 106 knots)
- landing should be slower to minimize risk of hydroplaning
Hard Landing characteristics?
- 780 fpm
- rapid round out
- high sink rate
- misjudged flare or lack of flare
- pilot should go-around and not raise gear if hard landing expected. followed by a chase-ship/straight in if warranted
- (max descent at touchdown = 600fpm = 3.7 Gs)
Crosswinds on Landing?
- use crab to maintain ground track while in pattern
- use wing low method when transitioning to final (aileron into wind, opposite rudder to line up to runway)
Gusty winds on landing?
increase ______ and ______ speeds by up to ____ the gust factor to a maximum of __ Knots. Landing flaps are not recommended during gusty wind situations.
Landing threshold and touch down speeds by up to 1/2 the gust factor to a max of 10 knots.
allow a minimum of ____ minutes before taking off behind any larger type aircraft or helicopter
allow a minimum of ____ min before landing behind any larger type aircraft or helicopter
allow ____ minutes behind HEAVY aircraft in FLIP GP
2 minutes; 2 minutes; 3 minutes
where to land when large aircraft is departing? landing?
where to takeoff after a large aircraft?
- land above and beyond larger aircraft's touchdown point.
- land before a larger aircrafts rotate point
- T/O (rotate) after a larger aircrafts touchdown point
- T/O before a larger aircrafts rotate point.
Brake Failure Landings?
If landing with one failed brake, land on side corresponding to failed brake. If both brakes are failed, plan for a firm on-speed touchdown on the center of the runway. Use aileron/rudder for directional control (execute Departing prepared surface procedure if necessary).
Tire Failure Landings?
First indications may be a pull toward the failed tire or rumble which can be mistaken for nose wheel shimmy. Do not change configuration. If the tire failure is known before landing perform a straight-in. When landing, put the bad tire on the centerline (put drag in the middle). Use rudder brakes and nose wheel steering to maintain directional control
- weather conditions allow full use of the MOA and honchos pattern
- X-winds within solo limits
- Solo students can maintain visual reference with the ground during Departure, Area work, and recovery
- honcho controls pattern
- inner rings only?
- formation only?
- Pattern only?
- Wx is 3100'MSL/5 or better
- X-winds within solo limits
- honcho controls the T6 pattern
- WX is 3100'MSL/3 or Better
- no solo student sorties
- WX is 2600'MSL/3 or better
- no solo student sorties allowed
- Pattern entry via initial T/O, pattern straight in, or closed/crosswind from center runway
- no breakout capability
- only 8 Aircraft in the pattern
- Wx is equal to or better than suitable approach minimums
- All aircraft return for instrument approach
Simultaneous Instruments (GPS B)
Wx is better than 2100'MSL/3 but less than that needed for restricted pattern
Reduced Runway Seperation
- 3000' staggered
- 6000' behind T-1, T-38
Breakout, Pattern Priorities
- Min Fuel
- Radar Entry
- Established in Pattern
- VFR Entry
- (every mexican farmer raises excellent vegetables)
GO - AROUND ( how and why?)
- when safety is an issue
- 20 deg off runway
Runway Change Procedures
- Climb to breakout altitude
- Maintain Ground track
- Exit @ 90 to initial and turn away from pattern
- Descend to re-enter new runway
Low approach vs. Restricted Low Approach
- Don't Let gear touch
- Restricted: 500'AGL or altitude assigned by controller (read by CS, Rest Low App.)
- VMC to IMC at 9 DME and radar and radio contact
- Direct to lateral limits of area at 13,000 MSL and 15 DME
SPINS & STALLS:
- Motions about all axis
- controls ineffective
- stalled nearly AOA
- changing Airspeed
- random turn needle deflections
- Oscillations in all axis
- Fully deflected Turn needle
- stalled AOA
- steadying Airspeed
STEADY STATE SPINS
- PROP RPM = 80% NP
- 60o Nose Low
- 2-3 sec/turn
- 400'/500' turn
- 18+ AOA
- 120-135 kts
Checks Prior to spins/stalls/aerobatics
- FUEL (Balanced and quantity)
- ENGINE (within limits)
- NAVAIDS (GPS/EHSI)
- NACWS (range settings, air space clear)
- COMMUNICATION (freqs set, radio call IAW local proc)
- CHECKS (climb, ops, pre-stall, spin, aerobatic, descent)
- EQUIPMENT (G-suit test)
- CLEAR (area and CWS panel)
- LOOSE ITEM STOWED
- ENGINE (within limits)
- FUEL BALANCE (within 50 pounds)
- Spins: 13,500'MSL ensure spinning stops prior to 10,000' MSL
- 7,000' above clouds, recover 3,000' above clouds
- Stalls/Slow Flight: 6,000' AGL
- Aerobatics/Recoveries: 6,000' AGL
15.5 units AOA, or 5-10 knots above stall speed
SINGLE ENGINE MENTALITY:
Formulas to figure out whether or not on profile
- 1000' for every 2 mile (125kts clean)
- 1350-1500 FPM (105kts gear)
- Decision to eject is based solely on the pilot
- 6,000' AGL (uncontrolled)
- 2,000' AGL (controlled)
- 0/0 Seat
- PCL - IDLE
- BRAKES - AS REQUIRED
ENGINE FAILRE IMMEDIATELY AFTER TAKEOFF (sufficient runway remaining to land)
- AIRSPEED - 110 KNOTS (MINIMUM)
- PCL - AS REQUIRED
- EMER LDG GR HANDLE - PULL (AS REQUIRED)
ENGINE FAILURE DURING FLIGHT
- ZOOM/GLIDE - 125 KNOTS (MINIMUM)
- PCL - OFF
- INTERCEPT ELP
IMMEDIATE AIRSTART (PMU NORM)
- PCL - OFF
- STARTER SWITCH - AUTO/RESET
- PCL - IDLE, ABOVE 13% N1
INADVERTENT DEPARTURE FROM CONTROLLED FLIGHT
- PCL - IDLE
- CONTROLS - NEUTRAL
- ALTITUDE - CHECK
UNCOMMANDED POWER CHANGES/ LOSS OF POWER/ UNCOMMANDED PROPELLER FEATHER
- PCL - MID RANGE
- PMU SWITCH - OFF
- PROP SYS CIRCUIT BREAKER (left front console) - PULL, IF NP STABLE BELOW 40%
FIRE IN FLIGHT (FIRE annunciator illuminated)
If Fire Is Confirmed:
- PCL - OFF
- FIREWALL SHUTOFF HANDLE - PULL
OBOGS Inoperative (OBOGS FAIL annunciator Illuminated)
GREEN RING - PULL (AS REQUIRED)
EJECTION HANDLE - PULL
EMERGENCY ENGINE SHUTDOWN ON THE GROUND
- PCL - OFF
- FIREWALL SHUTOFF HANDLE - PULL
- A/c equipped w/ Martin-Baker ejection seat (LOW RISK = injury between 5-10%
- fully automatic
- capable of providing safe escape from 0 alt/0 speed, up to 35,000' and 370kts
TABLE TOP EP:
set up questions
- Call sign
- fuel remaining
MAINTAIN AIRCRAFT CONTROL
- -recover from unusual attitude (NH/NL/INV recovery)
- - Establish wings level coordinated flight
- "i will use coordinated aileron and rudder to establish wings level flight @ ____kts, maintaining altitude and airspeed"
ANALYZE THE SITUATION
- check engine instruments:
- --> if engine problem: turn, climb, clean, check than back to analyzing
- Torque (VAR)
- ITT (~650)
- Oil Temp (55o)
- Volts (+-28.0v)
- CKPT Alt (<19k)
- Delta P (3.6 +- 0.2)
- Fuel Flow (~450)
- what did a see feel hear?
- FEVER CHECK
- Flux fuel flow
- Excessive ITT
- Visual Indications
- Erratic Engine Gauges
- Rough Engine Operation
- (BOLD FACE than another FEVER CHECK to see if bold face worked)
- State BOLD FACE, than execute
- - confirm bold face solved the issue
- POST FEVER CHECK
- REFERENCE CHECKLIST
POST FEVER CHECK
RESTART IF NECESSARY (not fire, fod, frozen (n1))
COMMUNICATE (ATC, REDSTICK, IFG pgs 38/39
Land as soon as possible
Emergency engine shutdown: 5 times?
Emergency ground egress: non boldface boldface?
- EMERG ENG SHUTDOWN
- if: chip light, prop strike, fire, depart prep surface, or pilot deems necessary
- EMERG GROUND EGRESS
- 1. ISS SOLO
- 2. PIN IN
- 3. PARKING BRAKE SET
- 4. CANOPY OPEN
- 5. UNSTRAP
- 6. BAT, GEN, AUX BAT OFF
- 7. EGRESS EGRESS EGRESS