history/physics/characteristics of radiology

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Author:
AmandaM
ID:
281226
Filename:
history/physics/characteristics of radiology
Updated:
2014-09-03 00:24:44
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radiology history physics characteristics
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radiology,quiz1,history,physics,characteristics
Description:
dentistry and x-radiation discovery of x-radiation history of dental x-ray equip history of dental radiographic techniques radiation physics radiation characteristics
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  1. what is radiation
    energy carried by waves or streams of particles
  2. what is x-radiation
    high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube
  3. what is an x-ray
    a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on photographic film
  4. what is the science or study of radiation as used in medicine
    radiology
  5. what is a branch of medical science that deals with the use of x-rays, radioacitive substances, and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease
    radiology
  6. what is a visible picture on film produced by the passage of x-rays through an object or body; also called and x-ray film
    radiograph
  7. is a radiograph an x-ray
    NO
  8. what is a photographic image produced on film by the passage of x-rays through teeth and related structures called...
    dental radiograph
  9. ________is the art and science of making radiographs by the exposure of film to x-rays
    radiography
  10. ______is the production/making of radiographs of the teeth and adjacent structures by the exposure of film to x-rays
    dental radiography
  11. any person who positions, exposes, and processes x-ray film is called a...
    dental radiographer
  12. what is the importance of dental radiographs
    enables professional to identify conditions that cannot be identified clinically and might go undetected
  13. list 5 uses of dental radiographs (out of )
    • detect lesions
    • confirm suspected disease
    • classify suspected disease
    • localize lesions
    • localize foreign objects
    • provide information during dental procedures
    • evaluate growth and development
    • illustrate changes secondary to caries, periodontal disease, trauma
    • document the condition of a patient
  14. What term indicates form of energy carried by waves or stream of particles
    radiation
  15. what is the study or science of radiation as used in medicine
    radiology
  16. what is a stream of high-speed electrons originating from the cathode in x-ray tube
    cathode ray
  17. ____is a beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on photographic fim
    x-ray
  18. what is a sealed glass tube with most air evacuated
    vacuum tube
  19. ____is the production of radiographs of the TEETH and adjacent structures by the exposure of film to x-rays
    dental radiography
  20. what type of electrical charge does the proton carry
    +
  21. what is an atom that gains or loses an electron and becomes electrically unbalanced?
    ion
  22. two or more atoms joined by a chemical bond
    molecule
  23. what is the emission and propogation of energy through space or substance in waves or particles
    radiation
  24. what is the production of ions, or process of converting an atom into ions (electron removed)
    ionization
  25. what is unstable atoms or elements spontaneously disintegrating/decaying in an effort to attain a more balanced nuclear state
    radioactivity
  26. what can be defined as radiation that is capable of producing ions by removing or adding an electron
    ionizing radiation
  27. when an electron is removed from an atom in the ionization process what is left...
    ion pair
  28. what contains the on-off switch, indicator light, exposure button, and control devices
    control panel
  29. what is the negative electrode that contains tungsten wire filament in molybdenum holder
    cathode
  30. what supplies electrons for an x-ray
    cathode
  31. what produces electrons for an x-ray
    tungsten filament
  32. what contains x-ray tube that produces x-rays
    tubehead
  33. what consists of a metal housing, insulating oil, tubehead seal, x-ray tube, transformer, aluminum disks, lead collimator, position-indicating device(PID)
    tubehead
  34. what supplies electrons that are necessary to generate x-rays
    cathode
  35. what dissapates the heat away from the tungsten target and is located in the anode
    copper stem
  36. what is the measurement of the number of electrons moving through a conductor
    amperage
  37. what is the x-ray tube peak voltage used during exposure
    kilovoltage
  38. what is energy of motion
    kinetic energy
  39. what is the release of electrons from tungsten filament when electrical current passes through and heats the filament
    thermionic emission
  40. what is the leaded glass vacuum tube that prevints x-rays from escaping in all directions called
  41. leaded-glass housing
  42. what is the measurement of electrical force that causes electrons to move from a negative pole to a positive one
    voltage
  43. what is the term for the penetrating x-ray beam that is produced at thte target of the anode and that exits the tubehead
    primary beam
  44. what is it called when an x-ray photon is deflected from it's path during passage through matter, causing ionization, and happening 62% of the time
    compton scatter
  45. what happens 8% of the time during exposure and does not cause ionization
    coherent scatter
  46. what is x-radiation created by primary beam interacting with matter
    secondary radiation
  47. what dislodges an inner-shell electron, causes ionization, and only happens at =>70kVp
    characteristic radiation
  48. molecules are formed in two ways
    transferring or sharing electrons
  49. what is an atom that gains or loses an electron and becomes electrically unbalanced
  50. ion
  51. what is the production of ions
    ionization
  52. what is capable of producing ions by removing or adding an electron to an atom
    radiation
  53. what type of radiation is tiny particles, that posses mass, travel in straight lines, and at high speeds
    particulate radiation
  54. what are the four types of  particulate radiation
    • electrons
    • --beta particles
    • --cathode rays
    • alpha particles
    • protons
    • neutrons
  55. what are accelerated hydrogen nuclei
    protons
  56. what are accelerated particles with mass of 1 and NO electrical charge
    neutrons
  57. what are streams of high-speed electrons that originate in an x-ray tube and emitted by a manufactured device
    cathode rays
  58. what are fast moving electrons emitted from nucleus of radioactive atoms
    beta particles
  59. what are emitted from the nuclei of heavy metals and exist as 2 protons and neutrons, NO electrons
    alpha particles
  60. what is capable of producing ions by removing or adding an electron to an atom
    radiation
  61. what is the propagation of wavelike energy through space or matter positioned at right angles
    electromagnetic radiation
  62. what are arranged in the electromagnetic spectrum according to their energies,and may be artificial or natural
  63. electromagnetic radiation
  64. Name 3 high-energyradiations capable of ionization
    • cosmic rays
    • gamma rays
    • x-rays
  65. what characterizes electromagnetic radiation in terms of discrete bundles of energy called photons or quanta
    Particle concept
  66. what are bundles of energy with no mass or weight
  67. photons
  68. what travel as waves at the speed of light and move through space in a straight line
    photons
  69. what are the 3 components to the wave concept
    • velocity
    • wavelength
    • frequency
  70. what is the speed of a wave
    velocity
  71. what is the distance between the tops of the crests of waves
    wavelength
  72. what is the number of wavelengths that pass a given point in a certain amount of time
    frequency
  73. high freq=____wavelength
    short
  74. long wavelength=___freq
    • low
    • L=L=L (long=low=less energy)
  75. x-rays=___freq+___wavelength
    • high
    • short
  76. what is high=energy, ionizing electromagnetic radiation
  77. x-radiation
  78. what interacts with the materials they penetrate and cause ionization
    x-ray photons
  79. x-rays travel at the speed of___
    light
  80. what controls the time, kilovoltage, milliamperage, and where is it located
    control device on the control panes
  81. what suspends the x-ray tubehead and houses the wires, and allows for movement and positioning
    extension arm
  82. what is the tightly sealed, heavy metal housing, that contains the x-ray tube that produces dental x-rays
    tubehead
  83. what surrounds the x-ray tube and transformers, protects tube and grounds high voltage components
    metal housing
  84. what surrounds the x-ray tube and prevents overheating
    insulating oil
  85. what permits the exit of x-rays
    tubehead seal
  86. what is the heart of the generating system
    x-ray tube
  87. what alters the voltage of incoming electricity
    transformer
  88. what filters out longer wavelengths and is in the path of the x0ray beam
    aluminum disks
  89. what restricts size of x-ray beam
    lead cllimator
  90. what aims and shapes x-ray beam
    PIG position-indicating device
  91. what includes leaded-glass housing, cathode, anode and is a glass vacuum tube
    x-ray tube
  92. what directs the beam toward the aluminum disks, lead collimator, and PID
    leaded glass housing
  93. what is the positive electrode consisting of a tungsten plate)target) embedded in a copper rod
    anode
  94. what converts electrons into photons and has a copper stem to dissipate heat
    anode
  95. what is the negative electrode that consists of a tungsten wire filament in a cupholder of molybdenum that supplies electrons necessary to generate x-rays
    cathode
  96. what is the electrical current when electrons flow in one direction
    direct current (DC)
  97. what is the electrical current when electrons flow in two opposite directions
    alternating current (AC)
  98. what is the conversion of alternating current to direct current (AC->DC)
    rectification
  99. what is the measurement of the number of electrons moving through a conductor
    "conductor of an orchestra..."
    amperage (x-ray=milliamperes=>mA)
  100. what is the measurement of electrical force that causes electrons to move from a negative pole to a postive one
    voltage=strength=force
  101. what can increase or decrease the number of electrons passing through the cathode filament
    mA
  102. what controls the current passing from the cathode to the anode
    kVp=kilovoltage=strength=force
  103. which circuit uses 3 to 5 volts, regulates flow of electrical current to the filament, and is controlled by mA
    filament circuit
  104. which circuit uses 65k-100k volts, provides high voltage required to generate x-rays, and is controlled by kV settings
    high-voltage circuit
  105. mA=#of electrons
  106. kV=^current
  107. what device increases or decreases the voltage in an electrical circuit
    transformer
  108. which transformer is used to decrease voltage and is used by the filament circuit
    step-down transformer
  109. which transformer has more wires on the primary coil
    step-down transformer
  110. which transformer is used to increase voltage, has more wires onthe secondary coil, and is used by the high-voltage circuit
    step-up transformer
  111. which transformer auto=corrects for minor fluctuations because of the need for a steady flow
    autotransformer
  112. what is the release of electrons from the tungsten filament when the electrical current passes through it and heats the filament
    thermionic emission
  113. what supplies the power to generate x-rays
    electricity from the wall
  114. the electrons stay in an electron cloud until the _______ circuit is activated
    high-voltage
  115. what directs the electrons to the tungsten target into the anode from the cathode
    molybdenum cup
  116. what restricts the size of the x-ray beam
    collimator
  117. the x-ray beam exits the tubehead at the opening of the...
    PID
  118. what radiation is produced when electrons hit or pass the nucleus of a tungsten target
    general radiation
  119. what percent is general radiation
    70%
  120. what radiation is produced when a high=speed electron dislodges an inner-shell electron causing ionization and only occurs at =>70kVp
    characteristic radiation
  121. what radiation is the penetrating x-ray beam that is produced at the target of the anode
    primary radiation
  122. what radiation is created when the primary beam interacts with matter (teeth, bones, soft tissues)
    secondary radiation
  123. what radiation is a form of secondary radiation deflected from it's path by an interaction with matter
    scatter radiation
  124. when the x-ray photon passes through the atom and everything is unchanged, producing densities on film and making radiology possible
    no interaction
  125. ____is the total transfer of energy from photon to the atoms of matter (patient)
    absorption
  126. what effect occurs 30% when an x-ray photon collides with a tightly bound inner-shell electron, gives up all its energy to eject the electron, and is absorbed by other atoms
    photoelectric effect
  127. what scatter occurs 62% when photon is deflected and ionization occurs...non-hit
    compton scatter
  128. what scatter happens 8% when low-energy photon interacts with an outer shell electron and does not cause ionization (more dense, bone=^chance of this scatter)
    coherent scatter

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