A&P GI System

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Author:
bbhagan
ID:
281241
Filename:
A&P GI System
Updated:
2014-08-24 20:40:43
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Gastroinestinal
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Description:
A&P GI System
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  1. This chemical digests certain fats
    Lipase
  2. This chemical acts like a detergent which emulsifies fats
    Bile
  3. This chemical breaks down nucleic acids
    Nucleases
  4. This chemical begins digestion of carbohydrates
    Amylase
  5. This chemical digests proteins
    Pepsin
  6. This chemical breaks down a type of sugar found in dairy proteins
    Lactase
  7. Begins mechanical breakdown of food through mastication
    Oral cavity
  8. The valve that prevents stomach contents from washing back up the esophagus
    Lower Esophageal Sphincter or LES
  9. Prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing
    Epiglottis
  10. Produces sodium bicarbonate (which nutralizes acid) and several digestive enzymes
    Pancreas
  11. Produces hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen to begin digestion of food
    Stomach
  12. Produces bile, detoxifies the body, forms plasma protein, stores nutrients, makes cholesterol
    Liver
  13. Opens and closes to control the passage of feces to the outside world
    Anus
  14. Carries food from the throat to the stomach
    Esophagus
  15. Where the majority of digestion and absorption take place
    Small Intestine
  16. Stores bile
    Gallbladder
  17. Absorbs water from fecal matter before defecation
    Large Intestine
  18. Ingestion
    When food enters the mouth
  19. Mastication
    Mechanically grinding food with the teeth
  20. Digestion
    Chemically breaking down food into small molecules
  21. Absorption
    When nutrients pass through the lining of the digestive tract into the bloodstream
  22. Defecation
    Elimination of unusable waste products through the anus
  23. The gastrointestinal tract is also known as the:
    alimentary canal
  24. The function of the oral cavity is to:
    add liquid to make food easier to swallow, taste food, begin mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
  25. What enzyme is found in saliva?
    amylase
  26. Which type of tooth is used to cut food?
    Incisors
  27. Which type of food is used to crush and grind food?
    Molars
  28. What is on the outsidde of teeth?
    Enamel
  29. The innermost layer of the GI Tract wall is called the:
    Mucosa
  30. How many permanent teeth do adults have and name them:
    per quadrant - 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 5 molars for a total of 32 teeth
  31. How many deciduous or baby teeth are there and name them:
    per quadrant - 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 2 molars for a total of 20 teeth
  32. The funnel shaped end of the stomach that attaches to the duodenum:
    Pylorus
  33. Name the three saliva glands and tell their locations:
    • Parotid - in the back of the throat
    • Sublingual - under the tongue
    • Submandibular - under the jaw
  34. The visible portion of a tooth is called the:
    Crown
  35. Cavities are also known as:
    Dental Caries
  36. Pre-cancerous condition of the mouth:
    Oral Leukoplakia
  37. Cracking or inflammation of the lips and corners of the mouth are called:
    Cheilitis or Perleche
  38. This covers the trachea to prevent food from entering the lungs during swallowing:
    Epiglottis
  39. The muscular "door" between teh esophagus adn stomach is called the:
    Lower Esophageal Sphincter
  40. This serous membrane is found in the abdominal cavity:
    Peritoneum
  41. Stomach activity is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system, particularly this nerve:
    Vagus Nerve
  42. When Pepsinogen and Hydrochloric Acid (HCI) combine in the stomach what is produced and what does it do?
    Pepsin - digests proteins
  43. A protective layer of this substance protects the stomach from its own acidic juices:
    Mucus
  44. When nutrients pass through the lining of the digestive tract into the bloodstream:
    Absorption
  45. Mechanically grinding food with the teeth:
    Mastication
  46. Elimination of unusable wast products through the anus:
    Defecation
  47. When food enters the mouth:
    Ingestion
  48. Chemically breaking down food into small molecules:
    Digestion
  49. Name the three regions of the small intestine
    Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
  50. Name the three main regions of the large intestine
    Cecum, Colon, Rectum
  51. Name and describe the four sections of the colon
    • Ascending Colon - travels up the right side of the body to the level of the liver.
    • Transverse Colon - travels across the body under the liver and stomach.
    • Descending colon - bending downward near the spleen and traveling down the left side of the body.
    • Sigmoid colon - "S" shaped portion of the colon attaching to the rectum.
  52. Infection with this bacterium is a risk factor for developing peptic ulcers
    H Pylori
  53. These protrusions into the lumin of the small intestine create an increased surface area for nutrient apbsorption:
    Villi
  54. Which section of the large intestine comes immediately after the cecum
    Ascending Colon
  55. GERD is a disease characterized by:
    Gastric acid washing backwards up into the esophagus
  56. Varicose veins in the rectum are called:
    Hemorrhoids
  57. This condition is characterized by irreversible scarring and destruction of liver tissue:
    Cirrhosis
  58. Inflammation of the gums is called:
    Gingivitis
  59. Oral Cavity
    Begins mechanical breakdown of food through mastication
  60. Esophagus
    Carries food from the throat to the stomach
  61. Stomach
    Produces hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen to begin digestin of food
  62. Small Intestine
    Where the majority of digestion and absorption takes place
  63. Large Intestine
    Absorbs water from fecal matter before defecation
  64. Liver
    Produces bile, detoxifies the body, forms plasm proteins, stores nutrients, makes cholesterol
  65. Gallbladder
    Stores bile
  66. Pancreas
    Produces sodium bicarbonate (which nutralizes acid) adn several digestive enzymes
  67. LES
    Lower Esophageal Sphincter - the valve that prevents stomac contents from washing back up into the esophagus
  68. Anus
    Opens and closes to control the passage of feces to the outside world
  69. Epiglottis
    Prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing
  70. Amylase
    Begins digestion of carbohydrates
  71. Pepsin
    digests proteins
  72. Lipase
    digests certain fats
  73. Lactase
    breaks down a type of sugar found in dairy products
  74. Bile
    acts like a detergent which emulsifies fats
  75. Nucleases
    breaks down nucleic acids

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