Chapter 6

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Mingming
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281302
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Chapter 6
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2014-08-25 15:40:41
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Chapter6 Learning Psychology
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Psychology
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Learning
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  1. relatively permanent change in behavior that arises from practice or experience.
    Learning
  2. a mental change that may or may not be associated with changes in behavior.
    Learning
  3. Was studying salivation in dogs and accidently discovered classical conditioning.
    Ivan Pavlov
  4. simple automatic responses to stimuli which are unlearned.
    Reflexes
  5. an environmental condition that evokes a response from an organism.
    Stimulus
  6. learned reflexes
    Conditioned responses
  7. are adaptive to the organism as they motivate them to avoid potentially harmful food.
    Taste aversions
  8. the process by which a CS lose the ability to elicit CRs because the CS is no longer paired with the UCS.
    Extinction
  9. recovery of a CR after extinction
    Spontaneous Recovery:
  10. tendency for a conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned.
    Generalization
  11. a previously neutral stimulus comes to serve as a learned or CS after being paired repeatedly with a stimulus that has already become learned.
    Higher Order Conditioning
  12. child conditioned to fear a rat demonstrating that fears can be acquired through the principles of classical conditioning
    Little Albert:
  13. Used to reduce fears by introducing pleasant experiences instead of negative in the pairing, thus the initial response is extinguished
    Counterconditioning
  14. exposing the client with the feared object until the fear response is extinguished.
    Flooding
  15. gradually exposing the client to the feared object under circumstances where they remain relaxed.
    Systematic Desensitization
  16. learning based on consequences of that behavior.
    Operant conditioning
  17. believed that pigeons could be trained to guide missiles to their targets.
    Burrhus Frederic Skinner
  18. behavior that operates on, or manipulates the environment.
    Operant behavior
  19. a simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in certain behavior because of the effects of that behavior.
    Operant conditioning
  20. Any stimulus, which increases the probability that responses preceding it will be repeated
    reinforcer
  21. increase the probability that the behavior will occur when they are applied
    Positive Reinforcers:
  22. increase the probability of a behavior when the reinforcer is removed
    Negative Reinforcers
  23. effective because of an organism’s biological makeup
    Primary reinforcers
  24. acquire their value through being associated with established reinforcers.
    Secondary reinforcers
  25. Sometimes called conditioned reinforcers.
    Secondary reinforcers
  26. occurs as a result of repeated performance of operant behavior without reinforcement.
    Extinction
  27. The reward returns and the behavior increases.
    Spontaneous recovery
  28. known by their effects, if the frequency of the behavior increases
    Reinforcers
  29. known by how they feel.
    Rewards and punishments
  30. sive events that suppress or decrease the frequency of behavior they follow.
    Punishments
  31. act as cues by providing information about when an operant will be reinforced.
    Discriminative stimuli
  32. reinforce behavior part of the time.
    Partial reinforcement
  33. fixed amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times when reinforcement occurs.
    Fixed Interval:
  34. variable amount of time occurs between reinforcements
    Variable Interval:
  35. reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses have been made.
    Fixed ratio:
  36. reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses.
    Variable ratio:
  37. Reinforces progressive steps toward the behavioral goal.
    Shaping
  38. Organisms can gain control over autonomic functions.
    Biofeedback Training
  39. showed that rats learn about their environment in the absence of reinforcement
    Tolman
  40. suggests that learning occurs only when the conditioned stimulus provides information about the unconditioned stimulus.
    Contingency theory:
  41. Suggested the Contingency theory
    Rescorla
  42. occurs because a conditioned stimulus indicates that the unconditioned stimulus is likely to follow.
    Learning theory
  43. proposed that we can acquire operants by observing the behavior of others not actually experiencing the event.
    Albert Bandura
  44. If a child watches 2 to 4 hours of TV a day, they will have seen 8,000 murders and 100,000 acts of violence by the time they finish elementary school.
    • 2 to 4 hours of TV
    • 8,000 murders1
    • 100,000 acts of violence
  45. Even G-rated movies, on average, have scenes of violence lasting 9-10 minutes per film.
    9-10 minutes per film.
  46. often shown to have only temporary or minimal effects if at all.
    Violence
  47. Effects of Violence in the Media
    Violence

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