Chapter 7

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Chapter 7
2014-08-25 16:07:12
Chapter7 Pshychology Memory
Memory: Remembrance of Things Past and Future
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  1. processes by which information is encoded, stored, andretrieved.
  2. Information about the outside world reaches our senses in the form of physicaland chemical stimuli
  3. remembering things as a picture.
    Visual code:
  4. remembering things as a sequence of sounds
    Acoustic code:
  5. remembering things in terms of their meaning
    Semantic code:
  6. maintaining information over time
  7. mentally repeating information.
    Maintenance rehearsal:
  8. our awareness of the functioning of our memory.
  9. elaborating or extending the semantic meaning ofwhat you are trying to remember
    Elaborative rehearsal
  10. requires locating stored information and returning it to consciousness.
  11. three stages of memory
    • Sensory memory
    • Short-term memory
    • Long-term memory
  12. is the type of memory that is first encountered by a stimulus.
    Sensory Memory
  13. Visual stimuli are referred to as          
  14. The sensory register that holds icons
    iconic memory
  15. Photographic memory is technically referred to as         
    eidetic imagery
  16. having the ability to store visual stimuli for remarkably long periods of time.
    Eidetic imagery
  17. occur about four times every second.
    Saccadic eye movements
  18. Iconic memory holds icons for up to               
    a second
  19. Mental representations of sounds, or auditory stimuli, are called             
  20. The sensory register that holds echoes
    echoic memory
  21. If one focuses on a stimulus in the sensory register, they will tend to retain it in _________
    short-term memory
  22. also referred to as working memory
    short-term memory
  23. In short term memory the image tends to significantly fade after               if it is not rehearsed.
    10-12 seconds
  24. The tendency to recall the first and last items in a series
    serial-position effect
  25. discrete elements of information
  26. the third stage of information processing
    Long-term memory
  27. memories people tend to remember that are surprising, important, and emotionally stirring
    flashbulb memories
  28. arrangement of items into groups or classes according to common or distinct features.
  29. the feeling of knowing experience.
  30. clear in the context in which they were formed.
    Context-dependent memories
  31. We retrieve information better when we are in the physiological or emotional state that is similar to the one in which we encoded and stored the information
    State-Dependent Memory
  32. Three basic memory tasks have been used to measure forgetting:
    • Recognition
    • Recall
    • Re-learning
  33. Failure to recognize something we have experienced
  34. Remembering information from memory without cues.
  35. We can relearn information more rapidly the second time.
  36. difference between the number of repetitions needed to learn and the number of repetitions to relearn the list.
  37. new learning interferes with the retrieval of old learning
    Retroactive interference
  38. older learning interferes with the capacity to retrieve more recently learned material
    Proactive interference
  39. we are motivated to forget painful memories because they produce anxiety, guilt, and shame
  40. recovered memories that are sometime induced by therapists
  41. difficulty in remembering episodes that happened prior to age 3 or so
    Infantile amnesia
  42. memory lapses for the period following a trauma.
    Anterograde amnesia
  43. memory lapses for the period before the accident
    Retrograde amnesia
  44. electrical circuits in the brain that correspond to memory traces.
  45. increases the efficiency of conditioning.
  46. released when stimuli are paired repeatedly.
  47. involved in the formation of new memories
  48. Parts of memories are stored in appropriate areas of the          
    sensory cortex
  49. largely responsible for integrating these pieces of information when we recall an event.
    limbic system
  50. acts apparently as the executive center in memory
    prefrontal cortex
  51. involved in verbal memories.