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- synchronous data link control
- allows secondary device to communicate with primary station in IBM architecture
- IBM proprietary protocol
- same function as SDLC – open protocol - addresses multipoint connections
- full-duplex connections - higher throughput
- PPP – replaced SLIP – offers more capabilities, both are encapsulation protocols used to carry
- data over serial lines
IPX – Inter network packet exchange – exists at the network level – Novell networks
PPTP – encapsulation and encryption , repackages frame and encrypts it - only works with IP
L2TP – just encapsulation - allows for tunneling over frame relay and ATM
Circuit-based proxy firewall
Application based proxy firewall
Circuit-based proxy firewall – looks at header information of packet to make decision
Application based proxy firewall – look at information within the payload of the packet
Stateful firewall –
Stateful firewall – firewall has table to track communication between devices and uses this to make decisions
- cables placed in plenum space – vents
- will not produce harmful chemicals in case of a fire.
- Nonplenum use polyvinyl jackets, plenum-rated use flouropolymers
ThinNet – thin coax – 185 meters, 10 mbps
Well known ports
CSMA – Carrier Sense Multiple Access
CD – collision detection
- Basic Rate Interface (BRI) ISDN service provides
- two bearer, or B channels, for data and one D, or control channel.
- Data is transferred over the B channels and the maitenance is on the D channel
PRI ISDN service provides 23 B channels and one D Channel
Classless interdomain routing
- Classless interdomain routing – CIDR
- IP addresses are running out –
- class A and Class B – too big – class C too small –
- CIDR allows to break up class B’s
- Trunk – used to connect switches for traffic of the same class
- - ex. Connection between two voice
- switches at a local phone company’s office … or connect lines or links of larger network
Broadcast – one to ALL
Multicast – one to many (devices that are assigned to receive multi cast)
Unicast – one to one
- SKA - The acess point (AP) will authenticate the wireless device with WEP key,
- the same key is used for encrypting data
end-to-end connections, what level? Session leayer - session establishment,
maitenance, and breakdown between applications
Asynchronous communication devices
- modems - devices can send data at will, sending a sequence of bits framed with start and stop bits and reassembled into data at the end
Synchronous communications - determine a synchronization scheme before data transmission
IP v6 - 128 bits,
iPng - (IP v6, or IP next generation)
- Fiber Distributed Data Interface
- high-speed token-passing technology.
- Used in MAN technology, meaning it connects different networks.
Cable modems - all used use the same coaxial network.
- Address Resolution Protocol - Knows the IP address of a device and broadcasts message to find the matching MAC address.
- IP and mac info stored in ARP table
Protocol filtering, rule enforcement engine, extended logging capability
Internet Group Management Protocol - used to report multicast group memberships to routers.
standard that specifies security mechanisms for wireless networks - working group to deal with security flaws in WEP -
gap in the WAP problem address? -
translation between WTLS and SSL. Wireless device will not use TCP/IP stack - point in time to translate WTLS to SSL
Physical layer standard for transmitting data over fiber-optic lines?
SONET -self-healing netowrk rings.
- Paying for guaranteed amount of frame relay bandwidth
- committed information rate
- Network address translation -
- uses NAT to translate intnernal address to public addresses
IPSec works at network layer -
SPX - sequenced packet exchange - transport layer
SOCKS firewall -
Circuit-level firewall - only look at the packet header infomration.
Asymmetric DSL - downstream is faster than upstream
FDDI vs. FDDI-2 -
provides fixed bandwidth that can be allocated for specific applications
Source routing -
packets containing router information within their headers - can override routes within the router - should drop packets
beacon functionality - excludes misbehaving computer from the network
- the beacom frame generates a failure domain, which is between the computer and the downstream neighbor,
- other computers on network will work around the failure.
802.11b - 2.4 GHZ only 1-2 Mbps - backward compatable - mostly used
802.11a - 5 GHz much higher data transfer rates - 802.11a - is not backward compatable