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What can solutions be prepared from?
Solutions can be prepared from a combination of solids, liquids, and gases
Solids can be dissolved in?
Solids can be dissolved in another solid, liquid or a gas
How many homogeneous mixtures are there?
There are 9 types of homogeneous mixtures possible
In pharmacy solutions are generally in reference to?
Solutions in pharmacy are generally liquid and solids, rarely ever gas
What is the definition of a solution?
A solution is "Liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents"
What are pharmaceutical usages for solutions?
Oral, Otic, opthalmic, topical
What is the simple definition of a syrup?
An aqueous solution containing sugar
T or F:A syrup is a hydro alcoholic solution of
sugar which can be dispensed
for pediatric use.
False, it contains alcohol. Can't give alcohol to children duh
What is an Elixir and what are the two parts that comprise of it?
- An elixir is a sweetened hyrdoalcoholic solution. It is based on Aromatic materials:
- Spirits (solvents in alcoholic)
- Aromatic waters ( Solvent is aqueous)
What are tinctures or fluidextracts?
They are solutions prepared by extracting active constituents from crude drugs
Under what conditions are the interactive forces between molecules responsible for physical state?
In a Stable system attractive forces cause?
Attractive forces cause molecules to cohere
In a Stable system repulsive forces prevent?
Repulsive forces prevent molecular interpenetration
In a Stable system how are the forces interacting?
In a Stable system, forces are equal
What is an important factor when making a solution and why?
The important factor when making a solution is Temperature. For chemicals absorb heat when they are dissolved and have positive heat of solution. Thus there is an increase in solubility as the temperature increases.
What are other factors important when it comes to making a solution?(5)
- 1) Physical Properties of solute and solvent
- 2) Pressure
- 3) pH
- 4) State of subdivision of solute
- 5) Physical agitation applies to solution as it dissolves
Many organic medicinal agents are? Whats an important factor for solubility for them?
Weak acids and weak bases. Their solubility depends on a large measure on the pH of the solvent.
What is partition coefficient?
Partition coefficient is a measure of a molecules lipophilic character for the hydrophilic or lipophilic phase
- K=Distribution constant
- Cu=Concentration of drug in the upper phase
- CL=Concentration of drug in lower phase
What are the advantages of using a solvent Alcohol, USP?(5)
- 1) After water, alcohol is the most useful solvent in pharmacy
- 2) For many organic compounds
- 3) With water forms hydroalcoholic mixture
- 4) Miscibility with water
- 5) Antimicrobial preservative
What are the disadvantages of using Alcohol as a solvent? (2)
- 1) Alcohol has undesired pharmacologic and potential toxic effects, in particular, children.
- 2) OTC restrain the use of alcohol and include appropriate warnings in label
Name four other solvents used in pharmacy
- 1) Glycerin, USP(Glycerol)
- 2) Isopropyl Alcohol
- 3) Propylene Glycol, USP
- 4) Purified Water, USP
Why is ordinary tap water not acceptable for pharmaceutical preparations? (4)
- 1) Possible contamination/ chemical incompatibilities
- 2) Precipitation
- 3) Discoloration
- 4) Occasionally effervescence
What is appealing about oral solutions for children?
Oral solutions generally have a appealing/attractive color and they have palatable flavor. This allows children to be more accepting of their medication.
What are two required ingredients in oral solutions that keep it together and safe?
Oral solutions have stabilizers, this keeps the chemical and physical stability. Preservatives are also added, this prevents the growth of micro organisms.
How are oral solutions generally administered to children? In what dosage?
Children are generally given the oral medication via dropper. The dosage is 5-10 or 15mL
What are dry mixtures used for solutions made on the spot in the pharmacy? What is included in the dry mixture? How long do they last?
The dry mixture has insufficient stability in aqueous solution, such as antibiotics. It is dry powder contains all components; Drug, flavors, colorants, buffers. The only component not included in the mixture is the solvent. Once the dry mixture is added to the solution, it remains stable for only 7-14 days. They generally only last the regimen prescribed and must be discarded afterwards.
When pharmacists are to dispense a commercially prepared oral solution what must they take steps to dispense it?
The pharmacists must dilute the concentration of the solution to the patients needs.
What are syrups?
Syrups are concentrated aqueous preparations of sugar substituent with or without flavoring agents and medicinal substances.
What are advantages of syrups?
- Pleasant Taste
- Children and elderly people to swallow solid dosage form
What are three considerations considered in syrups?
- Drug Solubility
- Drug Stability
- Drug Bioavailability
What are the components of syrup?(6)
- 1) Purified Water, Medicinal Agent
- 2) Sugar (Sucrose, or sugar substituent-provides sweetness and viscosity)
- 3) Antimicrobial Preservative
- 4) Flavor
- 5) Colorants
- 6) Commercially prepared syrups contain: Solvents, solubilizing agents, thickeners or stabilizers.
What are properties and advantages of syrup?(3)
- 1) Soothing effect ( antitussive syrups)
- 2) Methycellulose along with sweetener produces excellent syrup(for diabetics)
- 3)Sucrose (60-80%) high stability (No growth: Microorganisms, molds etc.)
What are the four general methods of preparation of syrups?
- 1) Solution of the ingredients with the aid of heat
- 2) By agitation without heat, by simple admixture of liquid components
- 3) Additions of sucrose to prepared medicated liquid or to a flavored liquid
- 4) Percolation of either the source of the medicated substance or the sucrose
What are four ways to preserve syrup?
- 1) Storage at low Temperature
- 2) Adding preservatives such as glycerin
- 3) Benzoic Acid, Sodium benzoate, methyl paraben or alcohol
- 4) By the maintenance of high concentration of sucrose as part of the formulation
What are elixirs?
Elixirs are clear sweetened hydroalcoholic solutions intended for oral use usually flavored to enhance palatability.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of syrups?
- Advantages:Effective in masking the bitter
- Preferred by children
- No alcohol
- Stable when high amounts of sucrose
- Disadvantages: High sugar, not for diabetics
- Solubility issues
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Elixirs?
- Less sweet, less viscous
- Water and alcohol soluble components
- Alcohol, water, glycerin,propylene glycol
- 10-12% alcohol are self preserving
- Not for children, and adults who choose to avoid alcohol
- Stored in a tight, light resistant container away from light
How are elixirs prepared?
- Elixirs are made as a simple solution with agitation and or by admixture of two or more liquid ingredients.
- Alcohol and water soluble components are then mixed separately then aqueous solution is added to alcoholic content
What are tinctures?
Tinctures are alcoholic solutions prepared from vegetable materials or chemical substances.
What are some characteristics of Tinctures?(4)
- 1) They contain 15-18% alcohol, prevents against microbial growth
- 2) Keeps alcohol soluble extractives in solution
- 3) They cannot be mixed with liquids too diverse in character(precipitation)
- 4) They need to be kept in air tight containers and the containers must be light resistant
What are some examples of Tinctures?(3)
- 1) Iodine
- 2) Thiomersal ( aqueous solutions)
- 3)Benzoin tincture( precipitates when added to water)
What is the definition of a spray?
A spray is aqueous or oleaginous solutions in the form of a coarse droplets or as a finely divided solids to be applied topically, usually to the nasopharyngeal tract or to the skin
What are the three uses for sprays?
- 1) They are used to relieve nasal congestion
- 2) They are used to combat inflammation, infection, used as a anti-histaminics, and sympathomimetic
- 3) They are used as antibiotic agents
What are the benefits of sprays and what are some examples?
Sprays are fast and non-invasive. Some examples of sprays are Insulin, Glucagon, Heart Burn Sprays, and Throat sprays
What are six examples of topical solutions?
- 1)Aluminum subacetate topical solution (USE: astringent wash and wet dressing)
- 2)Calcium hydroxide topical solution (astringent)
- 3)Coal tar topical solution(Alcoholic solution with 20% coal tar, 5% polysorbate80, and ethanol)(Use: local anti eczematic for chronic skin condition)
- 4) Hydrogen peroxide topical solution(30%)
- 5) Chlorhexidine Gluconate Solution (Broad spectrum antiseptic, gram positive and gram negative bacteria)
- 6) Povidone Iodine Topical Solution
What is benzocaine and what is its uses? Also, if prescribed what is it an indication of?
Benzocaine is a topical oral solution. It is used as a topical anesthetic. If a patient is prescribed this, it is to temporarily relief pain, soreness, irritation in mouth
What is Camphorated Parachlorophenol and what is its uses? Also, if prescribed what is it an indication of?
Camphorated parachlophenol is a topical oral solution that is used for dental anti-infective. If prescribed to the patient, it is used for sterilization of deep root canal
What is Cetyl Pyridinium chloride solution/lozenges and what is its uses? Also, if prescribed what is it an indication of?
Lozenges are a topical oral solution used as a llocal anti-infective. If prescribed to the patient it is used as a freshening mouth cleanser, and it soothes throat irritations.
What is Erythrosine sodium topical solution and what is its uses? Also, if prescribed what is it an indication of?
Erythrosine is a topical oral solution used as a diagnostic aid. When prescribed to a patient, it is applied to their teeth to revel plaque left after brushing
What is Nystatin oral suspension and what is its uses? Also, if prescribed what is it an indication of?
Nystatin is a topical oral solution used as a anti fungal. It is prescribed to patients to treat oral fungal infections.
Basedon the description: What will be the formulation categorized as?
An Alcoholic solution with 20% coal tar, 5%
polysorbate80, and ethanol
(Used as local anti eczematic for chronic skin condition).
B) Topical Solution
What are Liniments?
Liniments are alcoholic or oleaginous solutions or emulsions of various medicinal substances intended to be rubbed on the skin
What are some uses for non aqueous solutions?(3)
- 1) Rubefacient
- 2) Counterirritant
- 3) Penetrating Action
What are Collodions?
Collodions are liquid preparations composed of pyroxylin dissolved in a solvent mixture composed of alcohol and ether with or without medicinal substances
What is Pyroxylin?
Nitrocellulose+soluble gun cotton(Nitric and sulfuric acid are on the cotton)+Coolodion Cotton
Where are Collodions used? How is it used?
Colloodions are meant for external use only. They are applied with a brush or applicator. When applied, it forms a thin film. It must be used on dry tissue only
What are two methods to extract the desired drug?
Maceration(soak) and Percolation
How does Maceration work?
The drug to be extracted is placed in contact with the menstruum. This last between 2-14 days, using agitation, 15-20C. The extractive is then separated from marc by expressing the bag of drug. It than may be removed by straining/filtration. Additional mestruum can be used.
What is the process for Percolation?
Flow of menstruum is downward. Using positive pressure, it is exerted at inlet and suction at the outlet is exerted
What are three shapes of percolators?
- 1) Cylindrical (for complete extraction)
- 2) Roundish (Repeated exposure)
- 3) Conical (Drugs that can sweel)
What are some factors to consider when extracting?
- 1) Nature of Crude Drug
- 2) Objective to extract complete or near complete extraction
- 3) Combination of maceration and percolation
What are extracts?
Extracts are concentrated preparations of vegetable or animal drugs obtained by removal of active constituents with suitable menstrua.
What are some characteristics of extracts?
- They are bitter to taste
- 2-6 times more potent than crude drug
- Structural components of crude drug have been removed
- Small amounts, convenient sizes, stable physical form
What are the three forms of extracts?
- Semi-liquid (like syrup)
- Piluar or solid extracts ( Has consistency of plastic)
- Powdered extracts (dry, can be used of capsule, powders and tablets)