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What are the many facets of microbio?
- invented the first microscope in 1595 in Holland
- developed as a "toy" for the Royal Dutch Court
2nd attempt of his microscope= bone flea microscope
single greatest experimental scientist of the 17th century
interests across all scientific disciplines
Known as the "Man who knew everything"
What did Robert Hooke do?
made the first major improvements to the Jansen designs
made some of the first scientific reports using the microscope in 1665
studied cork and fleas
What did Hooke publish? And what occurred in 1662?
Micrographia published in 1665
1662; named Curator of Experiments of the newly formed Royal Society of London
Hooke's most famous microscopical observation was his study of __.
He saw that both __ and __ were made of __.
thin slices of cork
cork and fleas
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
- Used the __ to make the __
- Described his __ to the Royal Society between 1673-1723
- Found where?
- What was he looking at?
- compound micrscope
- first detailed description of small life
water collected from abbey gutters, water containing corn, and material scrapped from his teeth
Explain the three:
- spontaneous generation
Abiogenesis: the production of living things from non living things (didn't go away until around 1875-1880
spontaneous generation: the ability to produce life from non-life; synonm to abiogenesis
biogenesis: the production of living things only from other living things
Who came first in the debate of spontaneous generation?
- proponent or opponnt
In 1668, he demonstrted that maggots do not arise from rotting meat
- Two sets of jars containing rotting meat:
- -one set of three sealed jars containing meat--> no maggots
- -one set of three open jars containing meat--> maggots
His experiment showed taht maggots only appeared after flies landed on teh meat in teh open jars
Was Redi believed?
no; they argued against him
Who came after Redi?
- pro or opp
a strong proponent of SG
- In 1745, he boiled straw and soil to make a nutrient broth, poured the broth into covered flasks. Even after sealing, the flasks teemed with life after a few days
What was wrong with Needham's experiment?
he waited days before covering or boiled it wrong
- What did he do?
In 1765, he showed that Needham's sealing process forced air into the flasks, dealing a blow to SG (showed that Needham's experiment was faulty)
He heated the broth before and after sealing
Now did Needham respond to Spallanzani?
He claimed the loss of a vital force
- what did he do?
- What did he base his research on?
in 1858, he theorized that cells begat cells; an earlier publishing of a series of essays by Theodor Schwann established the cell as the basic unit of life
basedresearch on two papers
What did Virchow describe, setting the stage for what?
- Described complex structures made from colonies of cells
- Thus, he set the stage for life from life
- how did he end the debate?
In 1861, using short necked flasks, he repeated Needham's work and found that Spallanzani was correct.
- He made S-necked flasks filled with broth, boiled them, and exposed them to air
- - the neck shape did not allow for the exchange of materials between the outside air and the broth
Explain the longevity of the flasks?
they were left open for decades with no growth. The flasks were sealed in teh early part of this century and remain free of microbes
Pasteur was the first to describe and develop __. He was also the first to develop and administer __.
a directed vaccine
What is the significance of John Tyndall?
Demonstrated that microbes could be killed by heat
Took broth with microbes, heated it, and showed the loss of microbes
What is tyndallization?
Repeated heating to destroy heat labile endospores
Tyndall came up with the idea of what?
killing bacteria endospores--> repeated rounds of heat, cold, heat, cold, etc
How is Pasteur's process different from Tyndall's?
Pasteur came up with a gradient of heat to burn bacteria, which worked for all but endospores
Tyndallization was up down up down heat pattern and was good for non-specific foods