Block One Lecture 2

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Block One Lecture 2
2014-08-31 14:35:20
August 27th, 2014
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  1. Ignaz Semmelweis

    - known for? 

    - result of his accomplishments?
    - noting increases in the number of postartum and childbed fever as the clinical day progressed

    - chlorinated lime and soap solutions

    -demanding cleanliness

    - put into a mental asylum
  2. Joseph Lister

    - Who was he? 

     - known for?
    An English surgeon who applied this theory to medical procedures

    - utilized the observations of Ignaz Semmelweis and used weak phenol solutions on surgical patients
  3. Robert Koch

    - known for?
    1) discovering Vibrio cholerae

    • 2) Discovering the tubercle bacillus

    3) raced to beat Pasteur to discover the cause of anthrax

    4) isolated the causative agent from the blood of dead animals, Bacillus anthracis
  4. What are Kock's Postulates?
    The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease

    The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in culture

    The pathogen must be introduced into a healthy host and cause the same disease

    The pathogen must be isolated from the new host and shown to be the original causative agent

    Exceptions: Treponema pallidum and Mycobaterium leprae
  5. Who was Edward Jenner?
    the father of vaccination who developed the vacination against smallpox in 1798

    This work is the basis for virulence theory
  6. Paul Ehrlich

    - what did he do?
    began to search for a "magic bullet" against syphilis

    discovered the arsenic derivative Salvarsan in 1910
  7. Alexander Fleming

    - what did he do?
    Saw mold on agar plates and a zone of inhibition around the mold

    Identified the mold as Penicillium notatum

    Began the field of antimicrobial agents derived from fungal species

    Worked on the "scale-up" and chemical synthesis of the compound
  8. What about Viruses? When and where do they show up?
    viral disease in ancient Egypt

    3700 BC: Medical glyphs describe polio

    • 1196 BC: Ramses V dies of Smallpox
    • - First epidemic of small pox described
  9. Who encompasses the time between Post Jenner Virology to 1955?
    Dmitri Iwanowski

    Walter Reed

    Jonas Salk
  10. Dmitri Iwanowski

    - Did what?
    1892: filtered and crystallized TMV; described the virus in great detail and showed that viruses follow Koch's postulates
  11. What did Walter Reed do?
    demonstrated the mechanism of transmission for yellow fever virus 

    filtered and isolated the virus from the carrier
  12. What about Fungi -- Who are the big contributors?
    Bernard von Langebeck: Candida albicans in the esophagus of thyphoid patients

    Theodore Berg and Charles Phillipe Robin: C. albicans and thrush (small sponge disease)

    Rudolf Virchow and George Meissner: Onchyomycosis and Tinea/ Aspergillosis
  13. Ignaz Semmelweis "quote"

    Worked where? 
    What did he notice? 
    What did he do? 
    • "Wash your hands"
    • Worked at PEST clinic in Hungary, which had three clinics. Two were Clinic A, where all the older, more experienced physicians resided, and Clinic B, where the younger, newer physicians worked.

    He noticed that women who gave birth had a high percentage of dying. IS asked why? 

    So, he observed that women who gave birth first thing in the moring had a less than five percent chance of dying. And, as the day went on, the percentage increased to roughly 50% by the end of the day.
  14. WHat did IS discover? 

    What action does IS take?
    he discovered that the physicians don't wash up after giving deliveries. They use their dirty hands and clothes to deliver the babies. 

    IS tells them to wash their hands, which leads to equilization and equilibrium of the death rates to around 10%
  15. How was IS rewarded for his actions?
    put into an asylum
  16. Joseph Lister (why does his name ring a bell)?

    What was he doing? 
    What did he worry about and why? 

    What was his idea? 

    He was reading Ignaz's papers

    worried about small, noninvasive surgeries and the amount of infections that were occurring among the patients who received these infections and dying 

    Idea: What if we clean teh room and get new clothes? 

  17. What was the result of JL's idea? 

    What else did he do?
    Infection rate went down

    also used weak phenol solutions on patients as an anesthetic. He suggested keeping wounds clean, leading to a lower mortality rate to less than 10%
  18. Robert Koch 

    1) significance?

    one of the few who went against Pasteur AND WON
  19. What brought Koch into the race against Pasteur?
    the Germans called him in while France sent for Pasteur
  20. Why was Koch called?
    sent into to solve the mystery of hte cholera breakout that was affecting cows. Diarrhea was already known to be caused by bacteria, but Pasteur didn't believe that what was affecting the cows was bacteria because he couldn't culture it
  21. What does Koch do?
    he stabilizes the bacteria in a medium and sees it has a spore--> Koch's Postulates, which works on all but seven species
  22. Why are there exceptions to Koch's Postulates and what are they?
    1) Treponema pallidum, which causes syphillis

    2) Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy

    they can't be grown in pure culture medium
  23. What used to be an exception, but now is not?
    Legionella bacteria, which causes Legionnaire's disease.

    They threw charcoal into the culture, thus isolating it
  24. Edward JEnner

    1) interests? 

    2) What's his story? 
    1) intereted in science, agriculture, farming, astronomy, etc. 

    In 1798, smallpox was running rampant and wiping out millions of people. What Jenner noticed was that his milkmaids, and he himself, were not getting smallpox. The people milking the cows start out with no legions on their hands. They get legions after milking cows, whcih goes away, leaving no scarring. 

    If they get these legions, they don't get smallpox.
  25. What does Jenner do as a result of his observation?
    He stabilizes the liquid with broth and pox--> injects people with it. They get a mild version of smallpox, which resolves 46 weeks later. He even injects himself, but he doesn't get smallpox. 

    He then writes a paper about this vaccination, naming the agents cowpox and the variant of smallpox.
  26. What was discovered about the pox?
    • Cowpox and smallpox are so similar that being infected with one builds up immunity against the other
    • ex: the milkmaids were exposed to cowpox and thus immune to smallpox.
  27. IN 1875 and 1885, what occurred?
    Pasteur came up with two more vaccines.

    • 1875: Bacillus anthracis
    • 1885: Rabies
  28. What does Chemotherapy mean?

    What do we know by the late 1800s?
    chemical based therapy

    we know that diseases and their agents, but no therapies
  29. Paul Ehrlich
    a chemist who was called to help against syphillis. He creates a drug called Salvarsan (derivative of arsenic)

    He derivatives folic acid--> first three antimicrobial drugs (sulfonated derivatives of folic acid)
  30. Alexander Fleming
    -studied gram + bacteria

    - was culturing bacteria but constantly getting contaminated dishes. Finally, he decides to look at one of the dishes and notices that the fungus growing in the petri dish has an outline around it due to the bacteria, which stood away from the fungus. 

    It turns out the fungus was Penicillium and it produced a chemical that killed bacteria--> penicillin works against gram + bacteria because it prevents them from forming a strong cell wall

    He also worked to help chemically synthestize the agar
  31. But what about viruses? 

    The first infectious disease was described about __; but, the first described was __.
    FIrst to die of a viral disease was __ of __. HOw did they know it was that disease?

    5000+ BC


    Ramses V of smallpox (1196 BC)

    odd characteristic of smallpox that causes the soles of the feet to swell and appear as a second ankle
  32. Dmitri Iwanoski
    studying tobacco plants and TMV

    plants were infected--> leaves wilted, trned brown and died--> diseases passed to adjacent plants

    However, whatever it was was so small it was sliding off the slide
  33. As a result, what does DI do?
    He makes sap and runs it thorugh filters with different pore sizes. Finds salts and injects plants with it, which die.

    He calls them filterable agents
  34. What is special about these filterable agents that DI isolated?
    they follow, in a way, Koch's Postulates.

    It was the basis of everything until the 1950s, 60s, and 70s.
  35. Walter Reed
    shows mosquitos can transport and carry virus (yellow fever)
  36. Jonas Salk
    polio vaccine

    polio causes damage to Schwann cells, etc.
  37. What about fungi?
    Most fungal disease (abotu 70%) complicated bacterial and viral infections
  38. Bernard von Langebeck
    candida albicans in esophagus of thyphoid patients
  39. Theodore Berg and CHarles Phillipe Robin
    C. albicans and thrus (small sponge disease)
  40. Rudolph Virchow and Georg Meissner
    Aspergillosis and Onchyomycosis and Tinea