Ch2 Phonetics

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brianklein
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281376
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Ch2 Phonetics
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2014-08-26 18:52:30
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  1. the study of the production and perception of speech sounds
    phonetics
  2. the study of the function of the individual speech organs during the process of speaking
    physiological phonetics
  3. the study of sound changes in words
    historical phonetics
  4. differences in frequency, intensity, and duration of the various consonants and vowels
    acoustic phonetics
  5. systematic organization of speech sounds in the production of language
    phonology
  6. individual letters in a word
    graphemes
  7. different letter sequences or patters that represent the same sound
    allographs
  8. pairs of letters that often represent one sound because their are simply not enough alphabet letters to represent all of the sounds in english
    diagraphs
  9. smallest unit of language capable of carrying meaning. 1 morpheme: book , 2 morphemes: books
    morpheme
  10. morphemes that can stand alone and still carry meaning. ex: book, phlegm, music, press
    free morphemes
  11. morphemes that are bound to other words and carry no meaning when they stand alone. ex: pre, re, s, ian, ure,
    bound morphemes
  12. one specific speech sound
    phoneme
  13. words that vary only by one phoneme (in the same word position)
    minimal pairs or minimal contrasts
  14. variant pronunciations of a particular phoneme, these variants are called
    allophones
  15. when two allophones are not interchangeable (ie kid and could), due to the phonetic constraints of the vowel in each word. two allophones are found in distinctly different phonetic environments and are not free to vary in terms of where in the mouth they may be produced.
    complementary distribution
  16. puff of air as in "pit"
    aspiration
  17. as in "spit" when the phoneme /p/ follows the phoneme /s/. it is
    unaspirated
  18. when allophones are free to vary, as in keep (exploded) vs not exploded
    free variation
  19. because phonemes overlap, many phoneticians and linguists suggest that the smallest unit of speech production is not the allophone or phoneme, but the ___
    syllable
  20. on defining a syllable: consists of all the consonants that precede a vowel
    onset
  21. the onset may consist of either a single consonant or a ___ (two or three contiguous consonants in the same syllable)
    consonant cluster
  22. on defining a syllable: divided into two components, the nucleus and the coda
    rhyme
  23. typically a vowel
    nucleus
  24. when consonants take on the role of vowels, they are called
    syllabic consonants
  25. the single consonants or consonant clusters that follow the nucleus of a syllable
    coda
  26. syllables that end with a vowel phoneme (no coda) are called
    open syllables
  27. syllables with a coda (those that end with a consonant phoneme) are called
    closed syllables
  28. increased emphasis on one syllable. also referred to as word accent
    word stress or lexical stress
  29. word stress, in addition to its role in pronunciation, also helps differentiate words that are spelled the same but vary in part of speech or, whether a word is a noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc
    word class
  30. transcription of speech, making no attempt at transcribing allophonic variation is called
    systematic phonemic transcription
  31. virgules (slash marks) are always used with
    phonemic transcription
  32. systematic phonemic transcription (broad transcription) does not make ___ ____ distinctions
    allophonic variation (dark vs light)
  33. ___ __ ___ relies on specialized symbols called diacritics to show modifications in the production of a vowel or consonant phoneme during transcription. used with brackets and not virgules. allows to notification of released and unreleased production of words
    systematic narrow transcription
  34. transcription, where nothing is known about a particular speech sound system prior to analysis is termed an ___ ___, another form of narrow transcription
    impressionistic transcription

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