Anti ice rain.txt
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. You are flying a -300 and are about to enter icing conditions. You select both ENG ANTI-ICE switches to on. The lights illuminate bright, then only the #2 light dims. The #1 light remains bright. What has occurred? Are the indications any different in the -700/-800?
Answer: The #1 cowl valve failed to open. In the -700/-800, in addition to the bright COWL VALVE OPEN light, an amber TAI indication will appear on the common display system (CDS), next to N1 indicator.
2. Are you allowed to takeoff with the WING ANTI-ICE switch ON? What happens if you forget to turn the WING ANTI-ICE switch to OFF prior to takeoff?
- Answer: No, it is SWA policy the WING ANTI-ICE switch will be turned OFF prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Control valves close if either engine thrust is above the takeoff warning setting or either temperature sensor senses a duct over temperature; switch remains ON. At lift-off, the air-ground sensor will cause the WING ANTI-ICE switch (which is magnetically held in the ON position) to automatically return to the OFF position. The switch must be manually repositioned to the ON position for use after takeoff.
- Reference: AOM Chapter 3 and 9, FOM Chapter 3, and FRM Chapter 3
3. On descent in your -700/-800, you encounter icing conditions and turn on the ENG ANTI-ICE. The ENG ANTI-ICE remains on throughout approach and landing. Are the maneuver speeds displayed on the PFD affected? Are minimum maneuver speeds reset to normal if the ENG ANTI-ICE is turned OFF? What differences exist if WING ANTI-ICE is used?
- Answer: When ENG ANTI-ICE is used, stall warning logic adjusts stick shaker and minimum maneuver speed bars on the airspeed indicator (green flap maneuver speeds do not change). When turned off, stall warning logic, airspeed indications, and minimum maneuver speeds on the airspeed indicator return to normal. However, once WING ANTI-ICE is used, stall warning logic remains set for icing conditions for the remainder of the flight, regardless of subsequent WING ANTI-ICE switch position.
- Reference: FRM Chapter 3
4. Which aircraft components are anti-iced when the ENG ANTI-ICE is selected? WING ANTI-ICE
- Answer: ENG ANTI-ICE provides protection against ice formation on the engine cowl lip. WING ANTI-ICE provides protection for the leading edge slats (-300/-500) or the three inboard leading edge slats (-700/-800). The WING ANTI-ICE system does not include the leading edge flaps.
- Reference: FRM Chapter 3
5. You are departing BWI and it is snowing. The two-step deice/anti-ice method is used. You are on the deice pad, and the Iceman has just about finished one trip around your aircraft. Your ATC flow time to LGA is minutes away. Is the Iceman close to being done, or can you anticipate a second separate pass around the airplane to complete the two-step process?
Answer: Southwest Airlines' two-step deicing/anti-icing method does not require the deicing/anti-icing equipment to make two separate passes around the aircraft. The Ground Deice Crew deices a section of the aircraft to provide a clean surface, and then within three minutes applies anti-icing fluid to the clean section.
6. It is a wintry day in MHT. It is partly cloudy, with a light snow falling. You anticipate no delay for takeoff. You decide a Type I application will provide enough anti-ice protection for the conditions. When does the Holdover Time commence? What chart must be used since snow is being reported? What happens if Holdover Time is exceeded or in conditions of heavy snow? What are the two conditions under which the aircraft must be anti-iced with Type IV fluid?
- Answer: Holdover time begins when the final application of deicing/anti-icing fluid commences (start time). The FAA requires the use of the Snowfall Intensities as a Function of Prevailing Visibility Table to determine actual snowfall intensity. Type I fluid freeze point must be at least 10C/18F below OAT. If the time is exceeded or in conditions of heavy snow, a Cabin Check is required. A Flight Deck Crew Member operating the flight must inspect both aircraft wing surfaces from the cabin overwing windows within five minutes of takeoff. This inspection uses a comparative analysis to account for the condition of all critical aircraft surfaces. This comparative analysis validates the condition of non-visible surfaces predicated on the condition of those surfaces that are visible, particularly the left wing root, which is the oldest application point. The Cabin Check determines that all critical aircraft surfaces are free of contamination and that the deice/anti-ice fluid has not failed. When ice pellets (PL) of any intensity are reported or heavy snow (+SN) is reported or derived from the Snowfall Intensities as a function of the Prevailing Visibility Table, the aircraft must be anti-iced with Type IV fluid.
- Reference: AOM Chapter 15
7. It is July, you are in PHX, outside temperature is 105 degrees, and the aircraft has just come from the hangar. You are doing your flight deck preparation and turn on the Window Heat Switches. The right side “ON” light does not illuminate. All lights test properly. What could be the problem and how do you proceed?
- Answer: The light may not have illuminated due to high ambient temperatures. You should momentarily select the test switch to PWR and check that the green ON light illuminates. During this test the window heat controller goes to full power regardless of temperature.
- If the offending light does not illuminate, there is a problem with the system. Check the circuit breaker.
- Reference: AOM Chapter 16
8. You receive the current ATIS which indicates “Braking action advisories are in effect”. After landing, you experience normal braking and determine that the braking action is “good.” Is any PIREP required?
- Answer: Yes. A PIREP is required any time braking action advisories are in effect; or, if braking action advisories are not in effect, any time actual braking action is less than GOOD. Give the PIREP to tower or ground as soon as possible after clearing the runway, and to Dispatch via ACARS as soon as possible after gate arrival. Use of the ACARS Field Conditions Report (FCR) template ensures that Southwest Airlines Operations have the most current reports.
- Reference: FOM Chapter 12
9. You arrive at your aircraft and observe the wings and control surfaces have an emerald green appearance. The weather is clear, with no precipitation falling. You realize the emerald green color is indicative the aircraft was anti-iced with Type IV fluid. What must be done before departure or can you just preflight the aircraft normally and expect the anti-ice fluid to flow off the aircraft during the takeoff roll? What kind of thrust setting will you use for takeoff?
- Answer: You must clean the aircraft with Type I fluid before departure. Thrust setting for takeoff is at Captain discretion. Max takeoff thrust is only required when runway is contaminated with clutter.
- Reference: AOM Chapter 15
10. During your preflight, what should you expect to see when you test the WING ANTI-ICE and ENG ANTI-ICE switches and why?
Answer: During the WING ANTI-ICE test you should see the lights go from bright to dim. This is because the WING ANTI-ICE valves are electrically controlled and electrically operated, so the valves will actually open during the test. The ENG ANTI-ICE lights just have to illuminate, either bright or dim. This is because the ENG ANTI-ICE valves are electrically controlled and pressure actuated. The valves may or may not actually open depending on if there is pressure in the ducts.
11. Who is responsible for the Preflight Contamination Check? While performing the check you notice a very thin layer of hoar frost on the upper surface of the wings. Is this acceptable
Answer: The Captain must determine if deicing is required as soon as practical and communicate any deicing requirements to the Operations Agent or Station Operations. Hoar frost on the upper wing surfaces is not acceptable. All leading edge devices, control surfaces, tab surfaces, upper wing surfaces, and winglets must be free of frost, snow, and ice. The best vantage point for upper wing surface inspection is from the Passenger cabin. Thin hoar frost is acceptable on the upper surface of the fuselage provided all vents and ports are clear. Thin hoar frost is a uniform white deposit of fine crystalline texture, which usually occurs on exposed surfaces on a cold and cloudless night, and which is thin enough to distinguish surface features underneath, such as paint lines, markings, or lettering.
12. After deice/anti-ice, while waiting for takeoff, a new ATIS comes out. The icing conditions have gone from light to moderate. Additionally, an aircraft departing in front of you kicks up a small amount of slush that is beginning to accumulate on the runway. Other than performance issues, what considerations do you have prior to takeoff roll?
- Answer: When moderate icing conditions are present, take off must be preceded by a static engine run-up to as high a thrust setting as practical (70 percent N1 recommended), and stable engine operation must be observed prior to brake release. During takeoff in slush, a slush and water bow wave forms in front of the landing gear wheels, growing in size with increasing speed. The acceleration rate during the low speed portion of the takeoff roll will be close to normal but may deteriorate during the high speed takeoff roll. The lower fuselage, (NG) retractable landing lights, and wing area can be damaged by the slush thrown up from the landing gear tires. Slush and/or water can accumulate in the leading edge flaps and freeze during the climb. After takeoff, to prevent slush or wet snow from freezing nose gear doors and main gear seals and mechanisms, extend and retract the landing gear once after a stable climb has been established. After the flaps are up, wing anti-ice should be turned on to melt any accumulation of slush on the leading edge of the wing.
- Reference: AOM Chapter 15
13. You have just deice/anti-iced in PHL with Type IV fluid due to light ice pellets. Do you use Holdover Time or Allowance time? If you are delayed due to ATC, ice pellets are still falling, and exceed your Allowance time, can you do a Cabin Check to verify critical surfaces are free of contamination, then takeoff?
Answer: Allowance Time is used. Allowance Time is the established time Type IV anti-icing fluid can accumulate light ice pellets, moderate ice pellets, and ice pellets mixed with other forms of precipitation, and be able to flow off the aerodynamic surfaces during takeoff. Allowance Time cannot be extended by an internal or external Icing Check.
14. You are back in PHL on a different day. Light ice pellets are present, and you have deice/anti-iced with Type IV. As you wait in line for takeoff and are approaching the end of your Allowance Time, the weather system passes and clear skies emerge. The latest METAR indicates no precipitation is falling. Can you takeoff if you exceed your Allowance Time? What if the weather worsens and moderate ice pellets are indicated on the METAR? Does this change the Allowance Time?
Answer: Allowance Time may be extended if the official weather observation indicates that the precipitation has stopped and does not restart. Takeoff may be accomplished up to 90 minutes after the start of the Allowance Time. If the precipitation intensity, mixture, or temperature on which the Allowance Time was based changes, the Ice Pellet Allowance Time Chart must be consulted. A new, more restrictive Allowance Time may result. If the new condition is not listed in the chart, takeoff is not permitted.
15. It is early afternoon and you are preparing to deice for departure in BWI. The latest ATIS shows the weather is 400 overcast, 1 mile visibility and snow, with a temperature of -6 degrees C. How would you determine your holdover time with Type I fluid?
- Answer: When snow is the only reported precipitation, the FAA requires the use of the Snowfall Intensities as a Function of Prevailing Visibility Table to determine the actual snowfall intensity. This derived snowfall intensity is then used with the holdover time chart to determine the appropriate holdover time. If the reported visibility is being reduced by other forms of obscuration in addition to snow, the snowfall intensities chart should not be used.
- When the reported weather used in this example is entered into the snowfall intensities chart, the resulting snowfall intensity is light. This is the intensity you would use when referencing the Type 1 holdover chart.
16. Prior to taxi you deice/anti-ice with Type IV fluid. On taxi out, snow continues to fall. Would this be a good time to use WING ANTI ICE? How about after deicing with only Type I fluid?
Answer: Do not use the WING ANTI-ICE system on the ground after deice/anti-icing with Type IV fluid; this will degrade the anti-icing properties of the fluid. WING ANTI-ICE use is permitted after use of Type I fluid during taxi out.
17. You have to penetrate a small cell. You experience moderate turbulence, heavy rain, and hail. What action is required after landing?
Answer: A conditional hail inspection by Maintenance.
18. You are on final approach into PVD late one snowy night. About 5 miles out, the tower clears you to land, and reports a Mu value of 18. Should you attempt to land?
- Answer: No. Takeoff or landing is not authorized if the most current runway Mu report includes a value of 20 or less for any section of the runway.
- Reference: AOM Chapter 3
19. It is fairly cold in ABQ (6 degrees C), and you are preparing for descent in your -700/-800. You have flown most of the flight in icing conditions, but ABQ is reporting clear. Should “ENROUTE ICING ONLY” be selected on the OPC for landing? If selected, what does it do for you?
Answer: Yes. If any part of the flight was operated in airframe icing conditions and the anticipated landing temperature is below 10 degrees C (CL below 8 degrees C), select “EN ROUTE ICING ONLY” on the anti-ice toggle. This ensures that the required single-engine go-around climb gradient will be met in the event of an engine-out missed approach.
20. You have just flown your -700/-800 into SAN with full wing tanks after a 2.0 hour flight. The weather is overcast, temperature is 16 degrees C, dewpoint is 13 degrees C. Your fuel tank temperature is 3 degrees C. You have a scheduled 25 minute turn. What possible problem must you be on the lookout for? Why?
Answer: Cold-Soaked Fuel Frost (CSFF). At fuel tank temperatures of 5 degrees C and below, check for CSFF on both surfaces of the wing, most noticeably between the fuselage and the engine pylon.
21. Generally when does Cold-Soaked Fuel Frost (CSFF) form? When should I check for CSFF? How do you check for CSFF on the top of the wing? Is any CSFF allowed or must both top and bottom of the wing be absolutely clean?
- Answer: Ice or frost may form on the wing surface when fuel tank temperature is less than 5 degrees C due to cold-soaked fuel. With fuel tank temperatures below 5 degrees C, the wings should be checked for ice 10-15 minutes after gate arrival. To check the top of the wing, the best vantage point is from the inside of the passenger cabin. Per the “Clean Aircraft Concept” the upper wing surface must be clean of CSFF, however, up to 1/8 inch of CSFF is allowed on the lower surface.
- Reference: AOM Chapter 15
22. How do you remove CSFF? Is deicing the only remedy?
- Answer: CSFF removal may be accomplished by:
- 1. Radiantheating.Waitandallowatmosphericconditionstowarmaircraft.
- 2. Addwarmfueltobringthefueltanktemperaturetoabove5degreesC.
- 3. TypeIdeice.CoordinatefordeicewithlocalOperations.Ifavailable,itcan be applied with either a conventional deice truck or a trailer-mounted deicer (i.e., Hot Shot).
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