Ch. 1: The Human Body: An Orientation

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Ch. 1: The Human Body: An Orientation
2014-09-01 21:03:06
Human Anatomy
BIO 125
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  1. Define: 
    1. Anatomy (Morphology) 
    2. Physiology
    • 1. is the study of the structure of the human body; it is also called morphology = the science of form
    • 2. the study of body function
  2. Subdisciplines of Anatomy
    • Anatomy is a broad field of science consisting of several subdisciplines, or branches
    • Gross Anatomy
    • Microscopic Anatomy
    • Developmental Anatomy
    • Embryology Anatomy
  3. Gross Anatomy (gross = large)
    • 1. is the study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye (ex. the bones, lungs, and muscles)
    • An important technique for studying gross anatomy is dissection ("cut apart"), in which connective tissue is removed from between the body organs so that the organs can be seen more clearly
    • the word Anatomy is derived from Greeks words meaning "to cut apart"
  4. Studies of Gross Anatomy can be approached in several different ways:
    • Regional Anatomy- all structures in a single body region, such as the abdomen or head, are examined as a group (Medical School approach)
    • Systemic Anatomy- all the organs with related functions are studied together
    •      -The systemic approach to anatomy is best for relating structure to function (College approach)
    • Surface Anatomy- the study of shapes and markings (called landmarks) on the surface of the body that reveal the underlying organs
  5. Microscopic Anatomy (Histology)
    • is the study of structures that are so small they can be seen only with a microscope
    • these structures include cells and cell parts; groups of cells, called tissues; and the microscopic details of organs of the body
  6. Two branches of anatomy explore how body structures form, grow, and mature:
    • Developmental Anatomy- traces the structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span and the effects of aging 
    • Embryology is the study of how body structures form and develop before birth
  7. Some specialized branches of anatomy are used to primarily for medical diagnosis and scientific research:
    • Pathological Anatomy- deals with the structural changes in cells, tissues, and organs caused by disease
    • Radiographic Anatomy- is the study of internal body structures by means of X-Ray studies and other imaging techniques 
    • Functional Morphology -explores the functional properties of body structures and assesses the efficiency of their design
  8. The Hierarchy of Structural Organization
    • Chemical
    • Cellular
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ System
    • Organismal
  9. 1. To describe the dimensions of cells, tissues, and organs, anatomists need a precise system of measurement?
    2. What are the different units of measurement?
    • 1. Metric System
    • 2. Meter (m): a little longer than a yard stick
    •     Centimeter (cm): is a 100th of a meter
    •     Micrometer (μm): is a millionth of a meter
    •     Liter (l): is a volume slightly larger than a quart
    •     Milliliter (ml): is one-thousandth of a liter
    •     Kilogram (kg): is a mass equal to about 2.2 pounds
    •     Gram (g): is a thousandth of a kilogram
  10. Anatomical Position
    • A person stands erect with feet flat on the ground, toes pointing forward, and eyes facing forward. The palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away from the body.
    • the terms right and left always refer to those sides belonging to the person or cadaver being viewed
  11. Regional Terms
    • are the name of specific body areas
    • the fundamental divisions of the body are the:
    •      -Axial  Region, so named because it makes up the main axis of the body, consists of the head, neck, and trunk
    •      -Appendicular Region of the body consists of the limbs, which are also called appendages or extremities
  12. Define:
    1. Frontal (coronal) Plane
    2. Transverse (horizontal) Plane
    3. Sagittal Plane
    4. Oblique Sections
    • 1. Extends vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
    • 2. runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts (Cross Section)
    • 3. are vertical, like frontal planes, but divide the body into right and left parts
    •      -Median Plane or Midsagittal Plane = lies exactly in the midline
    •      - Parasagittal = offset from the midline
    • 4. Cuts made along any plane that lies diagonally between the horizontal and vertical