Criminology Mid-Term Review

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  1. Define Crime:
    Any human conduct in violation of the criminal laws of the federal government or a local jurisdiction with the power to make such laws.
  2. Know the difference between the following:
    morals, deviance, and folkways.
  3. Define Mores:
    The behavioral proscriptions covering potentially serious violations of a groups values. Examples include strictures against murder, rape, and robbery.
  4. Define Deviant Behavior:
    Any human activity that violates social norms.
  5. Define Folkways:
    A time-honored custom. Although folkways carry the force of tradition, their violation is unlikely to threaten the survival of the group.
  6. True or False: Homogeneous societies are considered a consensus perspective.

    While the question What should be criminal? can be answered in many different ways, the social and intellectual processes by which an answer is reached can be found in two contrasting points of view: (1) the consensus perspective and (2) the pluralist perspective.The consensus viewpoint holds that laws should be enacted to criminalize given forms of behavior when members of society generally agree that such laws are necessary. The consensus perspective, reflected in the actions of Islamic protestors described in a Crime in the News box in this chapter (and described in greater detail in Chapter 8), is most applicable to homogeneous societies, or those characterized by shared values, norms, and belief systems. In a multicultural and diverse society like the United States, however, a shared consensus may be difficult to achieve. In such a society, even relatively minor matters may lead to complex debates over the issues involved, and these debates show just how difficult it is to achieve a consensus over even relatively minor matters in a society as complex as our own.
  7. _______ recognizes the importance of diversity in societies like ours. (pluralistic society, consensus perspective, multicultural society, orhomogenous  society.

    The second perspective, the pluralist view of crime (also described in more detail in Chapter 8), recognizes the importance of diversity in societies like ours. It says that behaviors are typically criminalized through a political process only after debate over the appropriate course of action
  8. Define pluralistic perspective:
    An analytical approach to social organization that holds that a multiplicity of values and beliefs exists in any complex society but that most social actors agree on the usefulness of law as a formal means of dispute resolution.
  9. Define consensus perspective:
    An analytical perspective on social organization that holds that most members of society agree about what is right and wrong and that the various elements of society work together toward a common vision of the greater good.
  10. Define multicultural society:
  11. Define homogenous society:
  12. True or False: Criminologists study crime, criminals, and human behavior. (know what criminologists study)
    A typical dictionary definition of a criminologist is one who studies crime,criminals,and criminal behavior. 

    Occasionally, the term criminologist is used broadly to describe almost anyone who works in the criminal justice field, regardless of formal training.There is a growing tendency, however, to reserve application of the term criminologist to academics,researchers,and policy analysts with advanced degrees who are involved in the study of crime and crime trends and in the analysis of societal reactions to crime. Hence, it is more appropriate today to describe specially skilled investigators, crime-laboratory technicians, fingerprint experts,crime-scene photographers, ballistics experts, and others who work to solve particular crimes as criminalists. A criminalist is a specialist in the collection and examination of the physical evidence of crime. Police officers, corrections professionals, probation and parole officers, judges, district attorneys, criminal defense attorneys, and others who do the day-to-day work of the criminal justice system are best referred to as criminal justice professionals.
  13. What is evidence based criminology?
    A form of contemporary criminology that makes use of rigorous social scientific techniques, especially randomized, controlled experiments and the systematic review of research results; also called knowledge-based criminology.
  14. Which of the following statements is true about theory building? (know what theory building is)
    • There are many ways to define the word theory. One cogent definition comes from Don M. Gottfredson, a well-known criminologist of modern times: Theories consist of postulates [assumptions], theoretical constructs, logically derived hypotheses, and definitions. Theories can be improved steadily through hypothesis testing, examination of evidence from observations, revisions of the theory, and repetitions of the cycle, repeatedly modifying the theory in light of the evidence. (A hypothesis is an explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further investigation.) Another well-known methodologist describes theories this way:A theory is a set of related propositions that suggest why events occur in the manner that they do.The propositions that make up theories are of the same form as hypotheses: they con-sist of concepts and the linkages or relationships between them.
    • These definitions both have something to offer. In fact, the definition of the term theory that we choose to use in this book combines aspects of both. For our purposes, then, a theory is a series of interrelated propositions that attempts to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events. Theories gain explanatory power from inherent logical consistency and are tested by how well they describe and predict reality. In other words, a good theory provides relatively complete understanding, is supported by observations, and stands up to continued scrutiny.
  15. True or False: know what internal validity is.
    The certainty that experimental interventions did indeed cause the changes observed in the study group; also the control over confounding factors that tend to invalidate the results of an experiment.
  16. ______ is the certainty that experimental interventions did indeed cause the changes observed in the study group.
    problem verification, external validity, or internal validity.
    Internal Validity
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Criminology Mid-Term Review
Review for Criminology Mid-Term in CJA-314 class.
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