Ch 1 Text 4

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DesLee26
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281528
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Ch 1 Text 4
Updated:
2014-08-31 14:34:04
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Sam
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Biochem
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Test One: Genomic Revolution
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  1. a.       In the past decade or so, scientists have determined the complete __ of hundreds of different organisms, including simple microorganisms to complex animals and humans. Biochemistry is now an __
    The human genome contains approximately __ base pairs. 
    • genome sequences
    • information science
    • 3 billion
  2. a.       The genome sequence is a source of __; comparisons of the human genome with genomes of other organisms are confirming the __that exists at the __ and are revealing key steps that have been taken in the course of __from __ to __
    deep insight into other aspects of human biology and culture

    unity 

    biochemical level

    evolution 

    simple, single-celled organisms to complex multicellular organisms
  3. a.       The most fundamental role of DNA: __
    encode the sequences of proteins
  4. Proteins differ from DNA in two important ways.

    What is the first?
    • 1.       Proteins have 20 amino acids rather than four like DNA
    • a.       The chemical complexity provided by this variety of building blocks enables proteins to perform many tasks
  5. Proteins differ from DNA in two important ways.

    What is the second?
    •                                                               i.      Proteins spontaneously fold up into elaborate 3D structures, determined only by their amino acid sequences
    • 1.       A balance of H bonding, van der Waals interactions, and hydrophobic interactions overcome the entropy lost in going from an unfolded ensemble of proteins to a homogenous set of well-folded molecules 
  6. a.       The fundamental unit of hereditary information is the __; and the __that are simplest to define do what?
                                                                  i.      A block of DNA bases encodes the amino acid sequence by using what to do what? 
    1.       The relation that links the DNA sequence to the encoded protein sequence is called the __
    gene

    genes

    encode the sequences of proteins

    set of three bases along the strand (codon) to identify one amino acid within the protein sequence

    genetic code
  7.                                                               i.      The human genome includes about __protein coding genes
                                                                ii.      Additional mechanisms allow many genes to __ and proteins are __after the have been synthesized through the __
    • 23000 
    • encode more than one protein
    • modified 
    • addition of accessory chemical groups
  8. a.       The protein-encoding regions account for only 3% of the human genome. What is the function of the rest of the DNA?   Name reason one.          


    •                                                               i.      Some contains info that regulates gene expression in cell types and physiological conditions.
    • 1.       Essentially, every cell contains the same DNA genome, yet cell types differ considerably in the proteins that they produce
  9. a.       The protein-encoding regions account for only 3% of the human genome. What is the function of the rest of the DNA?   Name reason two.          


    •                                                               i.      Specific sets of genes are expressed in response to hormones, even though the genes are not expressed in the same cell in the absence of the hormones
    •                                                             ii.      The control regions that regulate such differences account for a small amount of our genomes
  10. a.       The protein-encoding regions account for only 3% of the human genome. What is the function of the rest of the DNA?   Name reason three.


                                                                  i.      The rest of the genome is junk that evolution inserted along the way
  11. a.       With the exception of twins, each person has a __ and each pair of individual people has a different base in one position per __bases, a __ difference
                                                                  i.      Nevertheless, variation in a single base within the genome can lead to __.
                                                                ii.      Variation in several genes can also cause __or even __to the development of the disease
    • unique sequence of DNA base pairs
    • 200 
    • 0.5%
    • disease
    • diseases 
    • predispositions
  12. a.       In addition to genetic differences, __  are important
                                                                  i.      They are associated with the genome but not represented in the sequence
                                                                ii.      Some may depend upon which parent passed the trait down, called __. This depends on the __, particularly the __
    • epigenetic factors
    • genetic imprinting
    • covalent modification of DNA, particularly the addition of methyl groups to particular bases
  13. a.       Factors in a person’s environment also are significant, such as chemicals that we eat
                                                                  i.      In many cases, the roles of these chemicals were first revealed through investigation of __ observed in people who don’t take in a sufficient quantity of a particular vitamin or trace element
    deficiency disorders
  14. a.       Food provides calories in the form of substances that can be broken down to release energy to drive other biochemical processes                                                              

    i.     
    Activities ranging from exercise to emotional responses such as fear and love, may __
    activate specific biochemical pathways, leading to changes in levels of gene expression, the release of hormones, etc.
  15. 1.       High stress levels, for example, are associated with the __
    shortening of telomeres

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