Chem110- Unit 1
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Study of matter and changes it undergoes
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Ability to do work to accomplish some change
- Study of life at the molecular level and the process associated with life.
- Ex: Reproduction, growth, and respiration.
Study of matter that is composed of carbon and hydrogen
Study of matter that consist of all the elements other than carbon and hydrogen and their combinations
Analysis of matter to determine its composition and the quantity of each kind of matter that is present
Discipline that attempts to explain the way in which matter bevaves
Systematic approach to the discovery of new information
Characteristics of the scientific process
- Formulation of a question
- Pattern recognition
- Theory development: hypothesis, theory
- Experimentation: Heart of the scientific method
- Information summarization: scientific law
An attempt to explain an observation, or series of observation, in a commonsense way
A hypothesis supported by extensive testing (experimentation) that explains scientific facts and can predict new Facts
What is the heart of the scientific method?
Experimentation is the heart of ____.
Is what scientific experiment produces.
Outcome of an experiment
Basic quantity of mass, volume, temperature, etc that is being measured
Collection of measures accumulated throughout English history
Composed of set of units that are related to each other decimally
English Unit: Weight
- 1 pound = 16 ounces
- 1 ton = 2000 pounds
English Unit: Length
- 1 foot = 12 inches
- 1 yard = 3 feet
- 1 mile = 5280 feet
English Unit: Volume
- 1 gallon = 4 quarts
- 1 quart = 2 pints
- 1 quart = 32 fluid ounces
How close a given measurement is to the true value
How well a number of independent measurements agree to one another
10-6 = 0.000001
10-9 = 0.000000001
The quantity of matter in an object
- Force of gravity on an object
- (g) grams
- Weight = mass x acceleration due to gravity
- Cannot be used for scientific measurement because weight of an object may vary from one place on the earth to the next
Distance between 2 points
- Space occupied by an object
- = lenght x width x height
- liquid: (L) liters or (mL)
- solid: (cm3)
- All digits in a number representing data or results that are known with certainty plus one uncertain digit.
- Only significant digits should be reported as data.
- All nonzero digits are significant.
- The number of significant digits is independent of the position of the decimal point.
- Zeros located at the end of a number are signficant or not significant depending upon the existence of a decimal point in the number.
- Zeros to the left of the first nonzero integer are not significant; they serve only to locate the position of the decimal point.
- Involves the representation of a number as a power of ten
- Ex: 6.2 x 103
Difference between the true value and our estimation, or measurement, of the value.
causes data to be either smaller or larger than the accepted value
causes data from multiple measurements of the same quantity to be scattered in a more or less uniform way around some average value
Degree of doubt in a single measurement
Have uncertainty (the degree of doubt in the final significant digit)
Have no uncertainty
- Degree of "hotness" of an object.
- Fahrenheit (F)
- Celsius (C)
- Kelvin (K)
- Ratio of mass to volume
- D = M/V
- (Remember the DMV pyramid)
- Ratio of density of object to density of pure water at 4 Celsius (always 1.00 g/ML)
- sg= d.o.(g/mL) / d.w.(g/mL)
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