Chem110- Unit 1

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Chem110- Unit 1
2014-09-01 16:09:25
Chem110 Unit1

Chem110- Unit 1 Vocab
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  1. Chemistry
    Study of matter and changes it undergoes
  2. Matter
    Anything that has mass and occupies space
  3. Energy
    Ability to do work to accomplish some change
  4. Biochemistry
    • Study of life at the molecular level and the process associated with life.
    • Ex: Reproduction, growth, and respiration.
  5. Organic Chemistry
    Study of matter that is composed of carbon and hydrogen
  6. Inorganic Chemistry
    Study of matter that consist of all the elements other than carbon and hydrogen and their combinations
  7. Analytical Chemistry
    Analysis of matter to determine its composition and the quantity of each kind of matter that is present
  8. Physical chemistry
    Discipline that attempts to explain the way in which matter bevaves
  9. Scientific method
    Systematic approach to the discovery of new information
  10. Characteristics of the scientific process
    • Observation
    • Formulation of a question
    • Pattern recognition
    • Theory development: hypothesis, theory
    • Experimentation: Heart of the scientific method
    • Information summarization: scientific law
  11. Hypothesis
    An attempt to explain an observation, or series of observation, in a commonsense way
  12. Theory
    A hypothesis supported by extensive testing (experimentation) that explains scientific facts and can predict new Facts
  13. What is the heart of the scientific method?
    Experimentation is the heart of ____.
  14. Data
    Is what scientific experiment produces.
  15. Result
    Outcome of an experiment
  16. Units
    Basic quantity of mass, volume, temperature, etc that is being measured
  17. English System
    Collection of measures accumulated throughout English history
  18. Metric system
    Composed of set of units that are related to each other decimally
  19. English Unit: Weight
    • 1 pound = 16 ounces
    • 1 ton = 2000 pounds
  20. English Unit: Length
    • 1 foot = 12 inches
    • 1 yard = 3 feet
    • 1 mile = 5280 feet
  21. English Unit: Volume
    • 1 gallon = 4 quarts
    • 1 quart = 2 pints
    • 1 quart = 32 fluid ounces
  22. Accuracy
    How close a given measurement is to the true value
  23. Precision
    How well a number of independent measurements agree to one another
  24. (M) mega
    106 = 1,000,000
  25. (k) kilo
    103 = 1,000
  26. (da) deka
    101 = 10
  27. (d) deci
    10-1 = 0.1
  28. (c) centi
    10-2 = 0.01
  29. (m) milli
    10-3 = 0.001
  30. (μ) micro
    10-6 = 0.000001
  31. (n) nano
    10-9 = 0.000000001
  32. Mass
    The quantity of matter in an object
  33. Weight
    • Force of gravity on an object
    • (g) grams
    • Weight = mass x acceleration due to gravity
    • Cannot be used for scientific measurement because weight of an object may vary from one place on the earth to the next
  34. Length
    Distance between 2 points
  35. Volume
    • Space occupied by an object
    • = lenght x width x height
    • liquid: (L) liters or (mL)
    • solid: (cm3)
  36. Significant figures
    • All digits in a number representing data or results that are known with certainty plus one uncertain digit.
    • Only significant digits should be reported as data.
    • All nonzero digits are significant.
    • The number of significant digits is independent of the position of the decimal point.
    • Zeros located at the end of a number are signficant or not significant depending upon the existence of a decimal point in the number.
    • Zeros to the left of the first nonzero integer are not significant; they serve only to locate the position of the decimal point.
  37. Scientific notation
    • Involves the representation of a number as a power of ten
    • Ex: 6.2 x 103
  38. Error
    Difference between the true value and our estimation, or measurement, of the value.
  39. Systematic error
    causes data to be either smaller or larger than the accepted value
  40. Random Error
    causes data from multiple measurements of the same quantity to be scattered in a more or less uniform way around some average value
  41. Uncertainty
    Degree of doubt in a single measurement
  42. Inexact numbers
    Have uncertainty (the degree of doubt in the final significant digit)
  43. Exact numbers
    Have no uncertainty
  44. Temperature
    • Degree of "hotness" of an object.
    • Fahrenheit (F)
    • Celsius (C)
    • Kelvin (K)
  45. Density
    • Ratio of mass to volume
    • D = M/V
    • (Remember the DMV pyramid)
  46. Specific gravity
    • Ratio of density of object to density of pure water at 4 Celsius (always 1.00 g/ML)
    • sg= d.o.(g/mL) / d.w.(g/mL)