Geography Ch. 1

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  1. Defining Geography
    • One of the oldest intellectual inquiries
    • Definition evolved over time
    • First "geographers" were travel writers
  2. Word Origin
    • "Geo" means earth
    • "Graphien" means to write
  3. Modern Definition
    • Where-spatial component
    • What-content component
    • Why-process component
  4. Geography
    Interpreting and describing variable characteristics of the earth's surface
  5. Why Study Geography
    • Geographic interdependence is increasing
    • Instant global communication
    • Changing international relationships
    • Environmental degradation
    • Learn about places and regions
    • Occurrences affects all
  6. Types of Geography
    • Physical
    • Human
    • Regional
  7. Physical Geography
    Deals with earth's natural processes, such as weather, climate, and landforms
  8. Human Geography
    Deals with spatial organization of humans, and the relationship to the environment
  9. Regional Geography
    • Combines elements of both physical and human
    • Concerned with combination of human and environmental factors
  10. Settings for Social Interaction
    • Provide daily routines for people's lives
    • Provide opportunities/constraints for social well-being
    • Provides context to gain knowledge and experience
    • Provide setting for socialization process
    • Provide area for social norms
  11. Elements of Map Use
    • Map Projections
    • Map Scales
    • Equidistant Projections
    • Conformal Projections
    • Equal-Area Projections
  12. Map Scale
    Ratio between linear distance on map, and linear distance on Earth's surface
  13. Map Projections
    Systematic rendering of geographic coordinates of Earth's features on a flat surface
  14. Equidistant Projections
    Accurately represents distances
  15. Conformal Projections
    Accurate projections of compass directions
  16. GIS
    Geographic Information Systems
  17. Geodemographic Research
    Uses census and commercial data to create population profiles for market research
  18. Spatial Anlysis
    Arrangement of points, lines, areas, or surfaces to study phenomena
  19. Units of Measurement
    • Latitude
    • Longitude
    • Equator
    • Meridian
  20. Latitude
    Angular distance of point measured North or South from the equator
  21. Longitude
    Angular distance of point measured East to West from prime meridian
  22. Equator
    Line of measurement running east to west around the center of the earth
  23. Meridian
    • Line of measurement running north to south along the earth
    • Prime Meridian runs through the center of the earth
  24. GPS
    • Global Positioning System
    • Uses coordinates to find one's location on the map
  25. Cognitive Images
    A person's individual psychological representations of a location
  26. Cognitive Distance
    Distance people perceive as existing
  27. Friction of Distance
    Reflection of time and cost of a distance
  28. Spatial Interaction
    Movement involving human activity
  29. Regionalization
    • Geographer's equivalent to scientific classification
    • Places and areal units are objects classified
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Geography Ch. 1
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