Clinical Microscopy Comprehensive Exam

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Clinical Microscopy Comprehensive Exam
2014-08-29 14:30:37
Clinical Microscopy CM
Clinical Microscopy Comprehensive Exam
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  1. Major ORGANIC component of urine
  2. Major INORGANIC component of urine
  3. Second Major INORGANIC component of Urine
  4. Third Major INORGANIC component of Urine
  5. Non dissolved substances found in Urine
    • Bacteria
    • Crystals
    • Casts
    • Mucus
    • RBC
    • WBC
  6. two-bean shaped organs located under the diaphragm on either side of the aorta in the posterior upper abdominal region
  7. Where is the Kidneys located?
    a. Above or under the Diaphragm?
    b. What side of the Aorta?
    c. What part of the abdominal region?
    • a. Under the Diaphragm
    • b. Either Side of the Aorta
    • c. Posterior Upper Abdominal Region
  8. A muscular tube that connects the pelvis of the kidney to the bladder
  9. Storage of Urine
  10. Where is Urine Excreted?
  11. A cavity area that is an expansion of the ureter
    Renal Pelvis
  12. It functions to collect urine from the calyces for transport from the kidney to the ureter
    Renal Pelvis
  13. Region of Kidney comprising the Outer Layer
  14. Region of Kidney comprising the Inner Layer
  15. It is comprised of renal corpuscles and the proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the nephron
  16. Comprised of the Loop of Henle and collecting ducts
  17. Where are the loops of Henle and collecting ducts found?
    Medulla, specifically in the Tubular System
  18. Where are the renal corpuscles found?
  19. Where are the proximal and distal convoluted tubules found?
    Cortex, specifically in the Tubular System
  20. Where are the collecting ducts found?
  21. It supplies blood to the renal artery
    Abdominal Aorta
  22. It provides blood to the kidneys and the renal vein
    Renal Artery
  23. It functions to return blood to the inferior vena cava (found in the kidneys)
    Renal Vein
  24. Functional Unit of the Kidney
  25. Comprised of the Renal Corpuscle and a tubular system that is responsible for the formation of Urine
  26. It consists of the glomerulus and Bowman's Capsule
    Renal Corpuscle
  27. It consists of the Proximal Convoluted Tubule, Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule and collecting duct
    Tubular System
  28. Where is the Glomerulus found?
    Renal Corpuscle or Tubular System?
    Renal Corpuscle
  29. Where is the Bowman's capsule found?
    Renal Corpuscle or Tubular System?
    Renal Corpuscle
  30. A tuft of capillaries that lie in a tubular depression
  31. A tubular depression where the glomerulus lies
    Bowman's Capsule
  32. It carries blood into the glomerulus
    Afferent Arteriole
  33. It carries blood away from the glomerulus
    Efferent Arteriole
  34. They aid in the tubular reabsorption process by surrounding the various segments of the renal tubule
    Peritubular Capillaries
  35. Where do Peritubular capillaries arise from?
    Afferent or Efferent Arteriole?
    Efferent Arteriole
  36. It primarily functions to filter blood
  37. Where does the Loop of Henle begin and end? and where is it mainly located?
    Cortex, but it is mainly located at the Medulla
  38. It directs the urine flow into the collecting duct.
    Distal Convoluted Tubule
  39. What is the Papillary duct made of?
    Collecting Ducts
  40. It carries urine into a calyx of the renal pelvis
    Papillary Duct
  41. Three processes that function together to form excrete urine
    • Glomerular Filtration
    • Tubular Reabsorption
    • Tubular Secretion
  42. It functions as a semipermeable membrane to make an ultrafiltrate of plasma that is protein free
  43. What might be damaged if protein is found in the urine?
  44. Where to large molecules (proteins) stay as the glomerulus filters the blood?
  45. What is the Glomerular Filtration Rate?
  46. They reabsorb all but 1mL of the Glomerular Filtrate
    Renal Tubules
  47. The passageway when filtered water, ions, and molecules return to the blood
    Peritubular Capillaries
  48. Responsible for approx. 65% of the reabsorption and secretion that occurs in the renal tubules
    Proximal Convoluted Tubules
  49. The limitation as to how much solute can be reabsorbed
    Renal Threshold
  50. What is the Renal Threshold (amount)?
    160-180 mg/dL
  51. Part of the Loop of Henle that reabsorbs water
    Descending Loop of Henle
  52. Part of Loop of Henle that reabsorbs Sodium and Chloride
    Ascending Loop of Henle
  53. Where does the filtrate go after reabsorption occurs in the Loop of Henle?
    Distal Convoluted Tubule
  54. How much reabsorption occurs in the Loop of Henle?
    approx 85% reabsorption of water and salt
  55. What is reabsorbed in the distal convoluted tubule?
    • Only Sodium and Water
    • Note: Chloride not reabsorbed
  56. Controls the reabsorption of water in the Distal Convoluted Tubule
    Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH)
  57. Enzyme that controls the reabsorption of sodium and water and secretion of potassium and hydrogen into the filtrate
  58. Final site for water reabsorption
    Collecting Duct
  59. It is secreted by the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kideys and catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
  60. Structure that secretes Renin
    Juxtaglomerular Apparatus of the kidneys
  61. What is converted by Renin?
    Angiotensinogen is converted to Angiotensin I
  62. It stimulates the production of Angiotensin II
    Angiotensin I
  63. Which is the active and inactive form?
    Angiotensin I or II?
    • Active Form = II
    • Inactive = I
  64. It regulates the renal blood by constricting the renal arterioles and secreting aldosterone from the adrenal glands to facilitate retention of sodium
    Angiotensin II
  65. Where is Aldosterone made?
    Cortex of the Adrenal Glands
  66. Where is Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH) secreted?
    Posterior Pituitary Gland
  67. What parts of the Kidney does the anti-diuretic hormone primarily affect?
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule
    • Collecting Duct
  68. It promotes calcium reabsorption from the filtrate into the blood and excretion of phosphate ions from the blood into the filtrate
    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  69. Where are the Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) made?
    Parathyroid Glands
  70. An alpha-globulin produced by the peritubular fibroblasts in the kidneys to stimulate red blood cell production in response to lowered oxygen levels
  71. inflammation of the glomerulus characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, and casts, but does not result in Renal Failure
    Acute Glomerulonephritis
  72. Type of infection that is followed by acute glomerulonephritis
    Group A Streptococcus Respiratory Infection
  73. inflammation of the glomerulus characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, and casts, and may result to renal failure
    Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
  74. Inflammation of the Renal Interstitium that may be caused by an allergic reaction to medication; characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs (esp eosinophils) and WBC casts
    Acute Interstitial Nephritis
  75. Usual cause of Acute Interstitial Nephritis
    Allergy Reaction to Medication
  76. Thickening of the Glomerular Capillary Walls and basement membrane; characterized by proteinuria and hematuria
    Membranous Glomerulonephritis
  77. It may be caused by Renal Blood Pressure Irregularities; characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, lipiduria, oval fat bodies, renal tubular epithelial cells, and epithelial cell-, fatty- and waxy casts
    Nephrotic Syndrome