Basic Anatomy

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Basic Anatomy
2014-08-31 02:01:43


Basic organization of the human body
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  1. Study of the structure and function of the body
  2. Study of anatomy in relation to medicine or other health sciences
    Clinical Anatomy
  3. The study of the minimal amount of anatomy enough to understand the overall structure and function of the body
    Basic Anatomy
  4. Approaches of Anatomy
    • Systemic
    • Regional
    • Clinical
  5. What is a Cell?
    Basic structural, functional, and biological unit of the body
  6. It directs cell activity and contains genetic materials.
  7. Controls what goes in and out of the nucleus
    Nuclear Membrane
  8. Jelly-like substance found inside the cell that acts as a medium for chemical reactions within the cell
  9. Packages the proteins made by ribosomes so they can be sent out of the cell
    Golgi Apparatus
  10. Powerhouse of the cells. Breaks glucose (sugar) to release energy. Site of cellular respiration.
  11. Storage center of the cell. It stores food, water, or waste of the cell.
  12. They make proteins. Either attached to ER or freely moving in the cytoplasm.
  13. Transportation network of the cell.
    Which is the protein synthesizer? lipid synthesizer?
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Rough ER - protein
    • Smooth ER - lipid
  14. Helps the cell digest waste, food, and other worn out cell parts.
  15. Produces ribosomes and rRNA
  16. Controls what passes in and out of the cell
    Cell Membrane
  17. Stores and transports substances from the golgi apparatus to the cell membrane export
  18. Superficial; Stratified epithelium whose cells are flattened as they mature and rise to the
  19. Extremely thick at palms and soles of feet
  20. Deep; Composed of dense connective tissue containing many blood and lymphatic vessels,
    and nerves
  21. Thickness varies in diff. parts of the body; tends to be thinner on the anterior side
  22. connects dermis to underlying deep fascia
    or bone
    Superficial Fascia
  23. Skin over joints; always fold in the same place
    Skin Creases
  24. Skin is thinner than elsewhere and is tethered to underlying structures by strong bands
    of fibrous tissue
    Skin Creases
  25. - Keratinized plates on the dorsal surface of the tips of the fingers and toes
    Ø  Nails
  26. - proximal edge of the plate of nail
    Root of the nail
  27. fold of skin that surrounds and overlaps the nail except for the distal edges
    Nail folds
  28. - surface of the skin covered by the nail
    Nail bed
  29. - Invagination of the epidermis into the
    dermis where hair grows

    - Lie obliquely to the skin surface
  30. - extremities of the follicles that penetrate
    the deeper part of the dermis. Has concave ends that are occupied by hair
    Hair Bulbs
  31. -  Smooth muscles connecting the underside of
    the follicles to the superficial part of the dermis

    - Innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers
    Arrector Pili
  32. Contraction causes hair to move into a more vertical position and dimpling of skin
  33. oily secretion that helps preserve the flexibility of the emerging hair; oils the surface epidermis of the surrounding follicle.
  34. - Long, spiral, tubular glands distributed
    over the surface of the body

    - Extends through the full thickness of the
    dermis; extremities may lie in the superficial fascia (most deeply penetrating
    epidermal appendage)
    Sweat Glands
  35. - loose areolar connective tissue + adipose
    - contains collagen fiber bundles in: scalp, nape, palms, soles -- holds skin to the deeper structures
    - lacks adipose in: eyelids, ear auricle, penis, scrotum, clitoris
    Superficial fascia a.k.a. subcutaneous tissue
  36. lie between the skin and underlying muscles and bones
  37. Ø  Membranous layer of connective tissue
    Ø  Invests muscles + other deeper structures
    Deep fascia
  38. well-defined layers influence the path taken by
    pathogenic organisms during infection
  39. thin film of areolar tissue covering muscles and
    Thorax & abdomen
  40. sheath that holds muscles in place; has fibrous septa that extend into the muscle groups, dividing the limb into compartment
  41. Restraining bands formed by a considerably thickened deep fascia in the region of joints
  42. fibrous tissues that attach ends of muscles to bones/cartilages/ligaments
  43. fibrous envelope that is the outer covering of a muscle (areolar tissue)
  44. fibers run obliquely to the line of pull
    Pennate muscle
  45. Compresses the sebaceous glands and causes it to extrude its secretions
    Arrector Pili
  46. thin but strong sheet of fibrous tissue that attaches flattened muscles
  47. interdigitation of the tendinuous flat
  48. interdigitation of the tendinuous ends of flat muscles
  49. Examples of parallel muscles?
    • Sternocleidomastoid
    • Sartorious
    • Rectus abdominis
  50. - Tendon lies along one side of muscle
    - Fibers pass obliquely to it
    - extensor digitorum longus
  51. - Tendon lies in the center of muscle
    - Fibers pass to it from two sides 
    - rectus femoris
  52. Series of bipennate muscles side by side (acromial fibers of deltoid)
  53. Tendon in the center, fibers passing from all sides (tibialis anterior)
  54. - Chief muscle or member of chief muscle group responsible for a certain action
    - quadriceps femoris in extension of knee joint
    Prime Mover
  55. - Opposes prime mover’s action
    - Must be equally relaxed for the prime mover to contract
    - biceps femoris opposes quadriceps femoris in extension of knee joint
  56. - Contracts isometrically (increase tone, but no movement produced)
    - Stabilizes origin of prime mover
    - rhomboid muscles & serratus anterior stabilize the scapula allowing the deltoid to act on the shoulder joint
  57. - Stabilizes intermediate joints (through
    which the prime mover passes first before the joint of its main action)
    - Prevents unwanted movement in intermediate joints
    - Flexor and extensor muscles of the carpus stabilize the wrist
    joint, allowing the longer flexors and extensors of the fingers to work more
  58. Nerve Supply of Skeletal Muscles

    -  Mixed nerve. __% _____ & __% _____ +
    some ______________________________
    60% motor, 40% sensory +some sympathetic autonomic nerve fibers
  59. region on the midpoint of the muscle’s deep surface where the nerve enters
    Motor point
  60. Triangular
  61. Round
  62. Straight
  63. Large
  64. Broadest
  65. Longest
  66. Two heads
  67. Four heads
  68. Two bellies
  69. Of the chest
  70. Above the spine of scapula
  71. Of the arm
  72. Deep
  73. Superficial
  74. External
  75. From sternum and clavicle to mastoid process
  76. From coracoid process to arm
  77. Extend
  78. Flex
  79. Constrict
  80. - long, spindle-shaped cells arranged in bundles or sheets
    - found in digestive tract, blood vessels, urinary bladder, uterus
    - propels materials through a lumen
    Smooth Muscle
  81. wave of contraction along circularly arranged fibers + contraction of longitudinal fibers
  82. Site where two or more bones come together
  83. - Articulating surfaces joined by fibrous tissue
    - Very minimal movement is possible
    Fibrous Joints
  84. Type of Joint
    Sutures of Skull
  85. Type of Joint
    Inferior tibiofibular joint
    Fibrous Joint
  86. - United by a plate of hyaline cartilage
    - No movement possible
    • Primary Cartillaginous Joint
  87. Type of Joint
    union of diaphysis & epiphysis
    Primary Cartillaginous Joint
  88. Type of Joint
    union of 1st rib and manubrium
    Primary Cartillaginous Joint
  89. - United by a plate of fibrocartilage
    - Articular surfaces covered by thin layer of
    hyaline cartilage
    - Minimal movement possible
    Secondary Cartilaginous Joint
  90. What type of joint?
    union of vertebrae
    Secondary Cartilaginous Joint
  91. What type of joint?
    symphysis pubis
    Secondary Cartilaginous Joint
  92. - Articular surfaces covered by thin layer of hyaline cartilage
    - Separated by joint cavity lined by synovial membrane, which extends to other articulating surfaces
    Synovial Joints
  93. tough fibrous membrane that protects the synovial membrane
    Fibrous capsule
  94. wedges of fibrocartilage found between articular surfaces (ex: knee joint)
    Articular discs
  95. Ø Factors Affecting Degree of Movement
    • - Shape of bones in the joint
    • - Presence of adjacent anatomic structures
    • - Presence of fibrous ligaments that unite
    • the bones (often found outside the capsule)
  96. Factors Affecting the Stability of Joints
    • Articular Surfaces
    • Ligaments
    • Muscle Tone
  97. Description: Flat articulating surfacesPlane Joints
    • Plane Joint
    • Movement: Sliding of bones on one another
  98. Description: resembles hinge of a door
    • Hinge Joint
    • Movement: flexion and extension
  99. Description: Central bony pivot surrounded by bony ligamentous right
    • Pivot Joint
    • Movement: Rotation
  100. Description: 2 convex surfaces articulating with 2 concave surfaces
    • Condyloid Joint
    • Movement: Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, minimal rotation
  101. Description: Elliptical convex surface articulating with elliptical concave surface
    • Ellipsoid Joint
    • Movement: Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
  102. Description: 2 reciprocally concavoconvex surfaces (like 2 pieces that fit together)
    • Saddle Joint
    • Movement: Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation
  103. Description: Concave head of bone + socket-like concavity of another bone
    • Ball-and-socket Joint
    • Movement: Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, circumduction
  104. What type of Joint?
    Plane Joint
  105. What type of Joint?
    Acromioclavicular Joint
    Plane Joint
  106. What type of Joint?
    Elbow Joint
    Hinge Joint
  107. What type of Joint?
    Knee and ankle Joint
    Hinge Joint
  108. What type of Joint?
    Atlantoaxial Joint
    Pivot Joint
  109. What type of Joint?
    Superior radioulnar joint
    Pivot Joint
  110. What type of Joint?
    Metacarpophalangeal Joint (knuckles)
    Condyloid Joint
  111. What type of Joint?
    Wrist Joint
    Ellipsoid Joint
  112. What type of Joint?
    Carpometacarpal Joint of the Thumb
    Saddle Joint
  113. What type of Joint?
    Hip and Shoulder Joint
    Ball-and-socket joints
  114. A sensory nerve supplying a joint also supplies the muscles that move the joint and the skin
    over insertions of those muscles.
    Hilton's Law
  115. band of connective tissue that connects two structures
  116. - Type of ligament that prevents excessive movement
    - it may stretch if stress is prolonged
    - dense bundle of collagen tissues
    - Iliofemoral Ligament
    - Collateral Ligament
    Fibrous Ligament
  117. - Type of ligament that returns to original length after stretching
    - ligament in ear ossicles
    - Ligamentum Flavum (vertebral column)
    - Calcaneonavicular Ligament (foot)
    Elastic Ligament
  118. - Closed fibrous sac containing viscous fluid
    - For lubrication where tendons rub against bones, ligaments, or other tendons
    - May also connect with cavity of synovial joints (ex: knee joint)
  119. - Tubular bursa surrounding a tendon
    - Function: reduce friction between tendon and surrounding structures
    - Tendon invaginates bursa from one side
    - Where tendons pass under ligaments and retinacula and through osseofibrous tunnels
    Synovial Sheath
  120. - keeps the tendon suspended within the bursa
    - allows blood vessels to enter tendon
  121. - Mesotendon in the form of narrow threads
    - Occurs where range of movement is extensive (ex: long flexor tendons of
    fingers or toes)
  122. Transport blood from the heart and distribute it to the various tissues of the body by
    means of their branches. Do not have valves.
  123. joining of branches of arteries
  124. vessels whose terminal branches do not anastomose with branches supplying adjacent areas.
    Anatomic end arteries
  125. vessels whose terminal branches anastomose with those of adjacent arteries; cannot keep the tissue alive should one of the arteries  become blocked
    Functional end arteries
  126. Vessels that transport blood back to the heart; many possess valves
  127. formed from veins made of fused smaller veins or tributaries
    Venous plexus
  128. two veins accompany a medium-sized artery, one on each side
    Venae comitantes
  129. a system of vessels interposed between two capillary beds
    Portal system
  130. where veins leaving the gastrointestinal tract converge; this enters the liver and breaks up again into sinusoids.
    Portal vein
  131. Microscopic vessels in the form of a network
    connecting the arterioles to the venules
  132. - thin-walled blood vessels that have an
    irregular cross diameter and are wider than capillaries
    - found in the bone marrow, spleen, liver,
    and some endocrine glands
  133. - Connections between the arteries and veins
    without the intervention of capillaries
    - Found in some areas of the body principally the tips of the fingers and toes
    Arteriovenous anastomoses
  134. - Types of connective tissue that contain large numbers of lymphocytes
    - Essential for the immunologic defenses of the body against bacteria and viruses
    Lymphatic tissues
  135. vessels whose terminal branches anastomose with those of adjacent arteries; cannot keep the tissue alive should one of the arteries  become blocked
    Functional end arteries
  136. Vessels that transport blood back to the heart; many possess valves;
  137. formed from veins made of fused smaller veins or tributaries
    Venous plexus
  138. two veins accompany a medium-sized artery, one on each side
    Venae comitantes
  139. a system of vessels interposed between two capillary beds
    Portal System
  140. where veins leaving the gastrointestinal tract
    converge; this enters the liver and breaks up again into sinusoids.
    Portal vein
  141. Microscopic vessels in the form of a network
    connecting the arterioles to the venules
  142. thin-walled blood vessels that have an
    irregular cross diameter and are wider than capillaries

    found in the bone marrow, spleen, liver,
    and some endocrine glands
  143. Connections between the arteries and veins
    without the intervention of capillaries

    Found in some areas of the body principally the tips of the fingers and toes
    Arteriovenous anastomoses
  144. Ø  Types of connective tissue that contain large numbers of lymphocytes

    Ø  Essential for the immunologic defenses of the body against bacteria and viruses
    Lymphatic tissues
  145. Ø  Tubes that assist the cardiovascular system in the removal of tissue fluid from the
    tissue spaces of the body; vessels then return the fluid to the blood

    Ø  Found in all tissues and organs of the body except the CNS, eyeball, internal ear,
    epidermis of the skin, cartilage and the bone.
  146. Lymphatic Vessels
  147. Ø  network of fine vessels that drain lymph from the tissues. Capillaries are in turn
    drained by small lymph vessels, which unite to form large lymph vessels.
    Lymph capillaries
  148. carry lymph to lymph nodes
    Afferent vessels
  149. transfer lymph away from lymph nodes
    Efferent vessels
    Divided into 2 main parts:
    • -  Central Nervous System (brain and spinal
    • cord)

    • - Peripheral Nervous System (12 pairs of
    • cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and their associated ganglia)
  151. 1. controls voluntary activities
    2. controls involuntary activities
    • 1. Somatic Nervous System
    • 2. AutonomicNervous System
  152. term given to nerve cell and all its processes
  153. 2 types of processes:
    1. Receive information
    2. transmits information away from the body
    • 1. Dendrites
    • 2. Axon
  154. consists of nerve cells embedded in neuroglia
    Gray matter
  155. consists of nerve fibers (axons) embedded in neuroglia
    White matter
  156. Consists of the cranial and spinal nerves, made up of bundles of nerve fibers (axons)
    supported by delicate areolar tissue,  and their associated ganglia
    Peripheral Nervous System
  157. -      
    A vertical bundle of nerves formed from the
    roots of the lumbar and sacral nerves below the level of the termination of the
    cord that resembles a horse’s tail
    Cauda equina
  158. Each spinal nerve is connected to the
    spinal cord by 2 roots: anterior and posterior

    1. consists of bundles of nerve fibers carrying nerve impulses away from the CNS 
    2. consists of bundles of nerve fibers carrying nerve impulses to the CNS
    • 1. Anterior root (efferent fibers) - Motor
    • 2. Posterior root (afferent fibers) - Sensory
  159. efferent fibers that go to the skeletal muscle and cause them to contract
    Motor fibers
  160. fibers that are concerned with conveying information about sensation of touch, pain, temperature, and vibrations
    Sensory fibers
  161. -      
    swelling on the posterior root where the
    cell bodies of sensory fibers are situated.
    Posterior root ganglion
  162. Anterior and posterior roots unite to form
    a spinal nerve at each intervertebral foramen and upon emerging divides into a
    large anterior ramus and a smaller posterior ramus.

    a. passes posteriorly around the vertebral column to supply the muscles and skin of the back

    b. continues anteriorly to supply the muscles and skin over the anterolateral body wall and all the muscles of the skin and limbs.
    • a. Posterior ramus 
    • b. Anterior ramus
  163. - supplies the vertebrae and the coverings of
    the spinal cord (the meninges)
    Meningeal branch
  164. branches of the thoracic spinal nerves which are associated with the sympathetic part of the Autonomic
    Nervous System
    Rami communicantes
  165. Plexuses
    - Formed, at the root of the limbs, when the
    anterior rami join one another
    -                 &                  are found at
    the root of the upper limbs
    -                and                 are found at the root of the lower limbs
    • Cervical and brachial plexuses
    • Lumbar and sacral plexuses
  166. Part of the nervous system concerned with the innervation of involuntary structures
    such as the heart, smooth muscles, and glands throughout the body and is distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system.
    Autonomic Nervous System
  167. prepares the body for an emergency

    a. Accelerated heart rate, causes constriction
    of the peripheral blood vessels, and raises blood pressure

    b. Brings about a redistribution of the blood
    (leaves areas of the skin and intestines and becomes available to the brain,
    heart, and skeletal muscle.

    c. Inhibits peristalsis of the intestinal
    tract and closes sphincters
  168. aim at conserving and restoring energy

    a. Slow heart rate, increase peristalsis of
    the intestine and glandular activity, and open sphincters.
  169. · The name given to the lining of organs or
    passages that communicates with the surface of the body.

    · Consists essentially of a layer of epithelium
    supported by a layer of connective tissue, the lamina propria

    · Muscularis mucosa is sometimes present in
    connective tissue
  170. · Line the cavities of the trunk and are
    reflected onto the mobile viscera lying within these cavities

    · Consist of smooth layer of mesothelium
    supported by a thin layer of connective tissue
  171. · serous membrane lining the wall of the
    cavity; developed from the somatopleure and is richly supplied by spinal nerves
    therefore sensitive to all common sensations such as touch and pain
    Parietal layer
  172. · cover the viscera; developed from the
    splanchnopleure and is supplied by autonomic nerves. It is insensitive to touch
    and temp. but very sensitive to stretch.
    Visceral layer
  173. 1. ______ – shaft; outer part: compact bone
    2. ______ – ends; cancellous bone + thin layer of compact bone
    3. ____________ – separates diaphysis & epiphysis
    4. ______ – part of diaphysis adjacent to epiphyseal cartilage
    5. ____________  –found inside shaft; contains bone marrow
    6. ____________ – CT sheath
    that covers the compact bone of the shaft
    • 1. Diaphysis
    • 2. Epiphysis
    • 3. Epiphyseal cartilage
    • 4. Metaphysis
    • 5. Central marrow cavity
    • 6. Periosteum
  174. - Found in hands and feet
    (ex: scaphoid, calcaneum, etc.)
    - Roughly cuboidal in shape
    - Cancellous bone + thin layer of compact bone
    - Covered with periosteum
    - Articular surfaces covered
    with hyaline cartilage
    Short bones
  175. Found in vault of skull
    (e.g., frontal and parietal bones)
    Flat bones
  176. - thin inner and outer layer
    of compact bone
  177. layer of cancellous bone that separates the tables
  178. -  Small nodules of bone found where tendons rub against bony surfaces
    - Most of it is embedded in a tendon
    - Free surface is covered in cartilage
    - Reduces friction on tendon
    - Can alter direction of pull of tendon
    Sesamoid bones
  179. largest sesamoid
  180. bundles of collagen fibers from periosteum extending into the bone
    Sharpey’s fibers
  181. Directly from connective tissue membrane
    Ex: bones of vault of the skull
    Ø  Membranous
  182. From cartilage template
    Ex: long bones of limbs
    Ø  Endochondral
  183. Ø  Matrix > fibers
    Ø Plays important role in bone growth (epiphyseal plate)
    Ø  covers nearly all articular surfaces of synovial joints
    Ø incapable of repair when fractured; replaced by fibrous tissue instead
    Hyaline cartilage
  184. Ø  Matrix < collagen fibers
    Ø Found
    in discs within joints (ex: knee joint, temporomandibular joint)
    Ø  Found in articular surfaces of clavicle and mandible
    Ø  Can repair itself slowly
    Ø  Joint discs have poor blood supply; cannot repair
  185. Ø  Large number of elastic fibers embedded in matrix
    Ø Found in: ear auricle, external auditory meatus, auditory tube, epiglottis
    Ø  Repairs itself with fibrous tissue
    Elastic cartilage
  186. Anatomical position
    • standing erect, feet pointing forward slightly
    • apart, the upper limbs by the side and the face and palms of the hands facing
    • forward
  187. upper part of a structure
    Superior (cephalic)
  188. – lower part of a structure
  189. at the front of the body
  190. Posterior
    at the back of the body
  191. Medial
    structure nearer to the median plane of the body
  192. Lateral
    structer farther from the median plane of the body
  193. Paramedian
    planes at the sides of the median line and are parallel to it
  194. between 2 structures
  195. vertical line dividing the  body into 2 equal parts
  196. closer to the root of the limb
  197. – farther from the root of the limb
  198. closer to the surface of the body
  199. within the body father from the surface
  200. closer to the center of an organ or cavity
  201. farther from the center of an organ or cavity
  202. outer wall of a body cavity
  203. covering of an organ within the ventral body
  204. – on the same side of the body
  205. on the opposite sides of the body
  206. body is lying on the back
  207. body is lying on its chest facing downward
  208. -   vertical plane passsing through the center of the body dividing it into
    left and right halves
    • Median/Sagittal Plane 
    • -possible movements: flexion and extension
  209. imaginary vertical plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior
    • Coronal/Frontal Plane
    • possible movements:
    • trunk –lateral flexion;
    • arms – adduction and
    • abduction
  210. plane at right angle to the median and coronal planes dividing the body into superior and inferior
    • Transvere/Horizontal Plane
    • possible movements: rotation
  211. movement of a limb away from the midline of the body in the coronal plane
  212. movement of a limb towards the midline of the body in the coronal plane
  213. combination in the sequence of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction
  214. forward movement
  215. backward movement
  216. movement of foot so its sole faces medially
  217. sole faces laterally
  218. Caput
  219. Cephalon
  220. Nuchae
  221. Antebrachium
  222. Carpus
  223. Manus
  224. Pollex
  225. Coxa
  226. Genu
  227. Popliteus
    back of the knee
  228. Crus
  229. Tarsus
  230. Pes
    Examination or exploration of an organ or an area of the body by touch (Biel, 2001).
    • Deformities
    • Temperature
    • Swelling
    • Pain
    • Muscle tone
    • Pulse
    • Sense the position in space of yourself and the person being palpated
    • Detect and evaluate change in the palpated findings, whether these are improving or worsening as time passes.
    • Detect abnormal tissue texture
    • Evaluate symmetry in the position of structures
  234. Technique: Palm of the hand strokes the skin.
    • Skin quality
    • Expectation: Pliable, smooth and may have hair growth.
  235. Technique: Back of the hand strokes the skin
    • Skin temperature
    • Expectation: Uniform body temperature.
  236. Technique: Skin lifting and skin rolling between middle and index fingers and thumb.
    • Skin consistency
    • Expectation: Soft and elastic.
  237. Technique: The pads of the index and middle fingers palpate perpendicular to the edge of the bone. You may palpate the soft tissue
    surrounding the bone then gradually move towards the presumed location of the
    edge of the bone.
    • Palpating bony edges
    • -    Expectation: hard consistency and clearly defined borders.
  238. Technique: Circular palpation using finger pads of the index and middle fingers and a minimal amount of pressure.
    • Palpating bony prominences
    • -    Expectation: The bony prominence protrudes from the surrounding bone and
    • it feels hard upon application of direct pressure.
  239. Technique: The subject/your partner may isometrically contract against resistance to isolate the muscle. Finger pads may be used to find the largest area in the muscle.
    Minimal pressure may be applied once the subject/your partner relaxes the muscle.
    • Palpating muscle bellies
    • Expectation: Firm consistency if muscle is contracted and soft consistency if muscle is relaxed
  240. Technique: The subject/your partner may isometrically contract against resistance to isolate the muscle. Finger pads may be used to find the edge of the contracting muscle.
    Once the edge is found, it can be steadily followed to find the course and the length of the muscle.
    • Palpating the edge of muscles
    • Expectation: Firm consistency and uniform, smooth contour
  241. Technique: Place finger pads flatly and directly on the onto the point where you suspect the
    tendon to be then alternately tense and relax the muscle
    • Palpating tendons
    • Expectation: Firm consistency with increasing firmness once the muscle is tensed.
  242. Technique: Initially place the ligament under tension and use direct pressure to palpate the firm and elastic consistency
    • Palpating ligaments
    • Expectation: Firm consistency with increasing firmness when stretched.
  243. Technique: A finger pad is placed flat with very little pressure over the presumed area of
    the artery.
    • Palpating blood vessels
    • -    Expectation: Pulsation.