rad1 exam chapter 12

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rad1 exam chapter 12
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rad1 chapter 12
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  1. depressions
    indentations or hollows in the surface
  2. projections
    processes that grow out from the bone surface
  3. prone
    lying face down
  4. recumbent
    lying down
  5. supine
    lying on back
  6. upright
    erect, standing or seated
  7. Angled Tube
    Choose the correct SID Lower 1” for each 5˚ angle

    Align CR with the body part

    • •Example:  SID of 40” with a 30˚angle
    • –30÷ 5 =6”

    Drop tube SID to 34” with a 30˚ angle
  8. Radiographic Markers
    •Side Markers Include Technologist Initials

    •Placed on IR during exposure

    –Part of Image

    –Placed on IR out of the way of anatomy

    –DO NOT use annotation in place of markers

    •Marker Placement Rules

    –Mark the patient’s correct side

    •Left or Right

    •Place within Margins and Radiation Field

    •Take care not to superimpose Anatomy of interest

    • •Right marker should never be placed past the midline of the left side of the body and
    • vice versa

    •AP or PA projections typically use the Right Marker

    •Obliques that include both sides of the body, mark the side closest to the IR

    Laterals mark the side closest to the IR

    Decubitus mark the side up
  9. Pathology
    Pathology Study of disease processes

    Diagnosis Process of identifying a disease

    Prognosis a prediction of the course of the disease and the prospects for the patient's
  10. Pathology continued
    Disease any abnormal change in the structure or function of the body Identified by their manifestations (3 types)

    Sign Objective and observed by the examiner

    Symptoms Subjective and can only be identified by the patient

    Syndrome Group of manifestations all together are typical of a condition, disease, or illness
  11. Disease Classifications
    Acute Fast Onset, short duration

    Chronic Long onset, long duration, recurrent

    Contagious Can be transmitted to someone else

    Non-Contagious Can not be transmitted to someone else
  12. Structural vs Functional
    • •Structural Causes
    • changes to the cells in the body Cancer

    •Functional Abnormal change in function but no structural cellular changes Migraine Headache
  13. Hereditary vs Congenital
    Hereditary caused by abnormalities in the genetic makeup of the individual and are inherited from a parent

    Acquired Any disease that is not hereditary

    Congenital Conditions present at birth Most are hereditary but not all
  14. Disease Causation
    Idiopathic Unknown cause

    Iatrogenic Results from treatment from a healthcare provider

    Nosocomial Acquired in hospitals

    Occupational exposure Healthcare worker acquires while working
  15. Inflammation
    –Immune system response

    –Initial part of the healing process

    –Redness, heat, swelling, pain
  16. Neoplasms
    Growths or tumors due to the malfunction of the system that controls cell growth
  17. Benign
    Single masses of cells that have limited growth and stay in one location
  18. Malignant
    Cancerous, invade surrounding tissues, and capable of metastasis
  19. Matter
    Anything that occupies space and has a shape or form

    MASS: Quantity of Matter that makes up a physical object

    Changeable in shape, but mass is unchangeable

    Water to Ice to Water to Water Vapor
  20. Law of Conservation
    Matter can be neither created or destroyed.  It can only change in form.

    • Energy can be neither created or destroyed.  It
    • can only change in form.
  21. Atoms
    3 main parts

    Neutrons Neutral no electrical charge)

    Protons Number of Protons determines an Atoms type Positive (+ charge)

    Electrons Negative (- charge)

    • Changes in the arrangement of
    • the above particles is what makes the differences in matter
  22. Binding Energy Holds electrons in their place.  Closer to the nucleus, the more binding energy.  The larger the atom, the more the binding energy
    • K shell is the most important Removal
    • of a K Shell electron is one way x-rays are produced.
  23. Elements
    A substance made up of only one type of atom

    All atoms of an element have the same atomic number

    Higher Atomic number, the greater the mass and density
  24. Ionization
    Ion a neutral atom that gains or loses and electron Neutral atom loses an electron = positive charge

    Neutral atom gains an electron = negative charge

    Ionization is the process of losing or gaining an electron producing an electrical charge
  25. Electromagnetic Energy
    Energy possessing both electric and magnetic properties

    –Travels @ 186,000 miles/second

    –Light,radio waves, microwaves, etc.

    –Changes the field in which they pass

    • These changes in fields occur in a repeating form called the sinusoidal wave (sine
    • wave)
  26. Radiography
    Wavelength describes energy of the beam

    Short wavelength Greater energy, higher frequency, more penetrating

    Long wavelength Less energy, less frequency, less penetrating
  27. Electricity
    Electrical Current

    –(-) charges flow toward a (+) charge

    • Flows through the following conductors when there is a difference in electrical
    • charges (potential difference) between 2 points in the circuit:

    • Vacuum
    • Saltwater
    • Metals such as copper

    Circuit Continuous path of electricity
  28. Rectification
    Conversion of Alternating Current to flow in only one direction

    X-ray tubes can only use Direct Current
  29. Transformer
    Device used to produce high voltage

    –Must have 2 coils
  30. Windings
    • Turns of coils in the Primary Coil and
    • the Secondary Coil

    • Allows change of voltage, which is the
    • primary purpose of the transformer.
  31. Step-up Transformer
    • Windings on the Secondary Coil is greater
    • than the Primary Coil, the voltage has increased on the Secondary side.
  32. Step-down Transformer
    • Windings on the Secondary Coil is less
    • than the Primary Coil, the voltage has decreased on the Secondary side.
  33. what is a basic form of matter
    solid and liquid
  34. the quantity of matter that makes up any physical object is called
    mass
  35. what is located in an orbit around the nucleus of an atom
    electron
  36. what has a negative electrical charge
    electron
  37. fundamental particles of atoms
    neutrons and protons
  38. when a neutral atom gains or loses an electron the atom is said to be
    ionized
  39. mechanical energy can be classified as either kinetic energy or
    potential energy
  40. x-rays consist of
    electromagnetic energy
  41. x-rays with greater energy have a shorter ___ and are more penetrating
    wavelength
  42. characteristics of x-rays
    they are highly penetrating and invisible

    they cause certain crystals to fluoresce

    they travel in straight lines at the speed of light
  43. the smallest possible unit of electromagnetic energy is the
    photon
  44. the term for a continuous path for the flow of electrical charges from the power source through one or more electrical devices and back to the source is
    electrical circuit
  45. the common unit of measure for the potential difference across an x-ray tube is the
    ohm
  46. the frequency of alternating current (AC) delivered by electric utilities in the united states and Canada is
    60Hz
  47. the purpose of a transformer is to
    increase or decrease voltage
  48. which electron shell in the atom is most important for the production of x-rays
    K
  49. electrons are held in place around the nucleus of the atom by a
    binding energy
  50. when an atom gains or loses an electron it is called an
    ion
  51. the process of converting AC to DC is called
    rectification
  52. one of the most important elements in radiology that is used to create the x-rays is
    tungsten
  53. x-rays cause ionization in the human body this has a negative effect on the body true or false
    true
  54. when a step-up transformer increases voltage from the primary side to the secondary side of a transformer amperage is increased true or false
    false
  55. if a transformer has 100 turns on the primary side and 25 turns on the secondary side it is a step-down transformer true or false
    true
  56. a transformer with a 500:1 ratio would be a step-up transformer true or false
    true
  57. x-rays with greater energy have a lower frequency true or false
    false
  58. electron orbit shell nearest the nucleus of an atom is
    k-shell
  59. name two forms of electromagnetic radiation that have a longer wavelength than diagnostic x-rays
    • microwaves
    • radiowaves
  60. how does wavelength affect the usefulness of an x-ray beam
    the shorter the wavelength the more penetrating the beam
  61. what is the duration of an electrical cycle in the United States and electrical impulse
    electrical cycle 1/160 sec

    electrical impulse 1/120 sec
  62. what is meant by electromagnetic induction
    the process by which an electric current in one circuit influences a current to flow in a second circuit. induction occurs because of movement between the magnetic field surrounding wire in the first current
  63. what is the primary purpose of a transformer
    to change voltage
  64. ammeter
    measures electrical current
  65. voltmeter
    measures electrical potential
  66. transformer
    increases or decreases voltage by a fixed amount (AC only)
  67. alternating current
    current changes polarity form negative to positive at regular intervals
  68. rectification
    process of changing AC to DC
  69. volt
    unit to measure potential difference
  70. current
    quantity of electrons flowing in a circuit
  71. when a electron is removed from an atom in the human body the process is called
    ionization
  72. what is the official name of the type of x-ray energy that occurs in a high-frequency sine wave
    electromagnetic
  73. in a sine wave the name given to the distance from one crest of the wave to another crest is called
    wavelenght
  74. the unit of electromagnetic frequency is the
    hertz
  75. diagnostic x-rays consist of what type of radiation on the electromagnetic spectrum
    ionizing
  76. what type of wavelength do x-ray have
    very short
  77. what type of frequency do x-rays have
    very high
  78. what type of current is delivered to homes in the united states and Canada
    alternating
  79. potential difference is the force behind the current in an electrical circuit. this force is measured in
    volts or kilovolts

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