Lab Practical 1

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Lab Practical 1
2014-09-22 22:26:19
LabPractical1 StudyGuide

Biology 103B
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  1. the position of the heart in the body
    located within the mediastinum, or media cavity, of the throax. It is flanked laterally by the lungs, posteriorly by the vertebral column, and anteriorly by the sternum. Its more pointed apex extends slightly to the left and rests on on the diaphragm, approximately at the level of the fifth intercostal space. Its broader base, from which the great vessels emerge, lies beneath the second rib and points toward the right shoulder
  2. the membranes that surround and line the heart
    • 1. pericardium: double-walled sac enclosing the heart and forming its superficial layer; has fibrous and serous layers
    • 2. fibrous pericardium: the loosely fitting superficial part of the sac
    • 3. serous pericardium: a thin, slippery, two-layer serous membrane that forms a closed sac around the heart. Its parietal layer lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium
    • 4. visceral layer: aka epicardium which is an integral part of the heart wall
    • 5. pericardial cavity: contains a film of serous fluid
    • 6. Epicardium: the visceral layer of the serous pericardium
  3. Abnormal conditions associated with these membranes and possible causes of these conditions
    1. Pericarditis: inflammation of the pericardium, causes painful adhesions between the serous pericardial layers.

    2. Cardiac tamponade: excess fluid compresses the heart and limits its ability to pump blood. Possible Cause: the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space. Large amounts of inflammatory fluid seep into the pericardial cavity.
  4. 1. Major vessels that connect the heart to the pulmonary and
    2. Major vessels that connect the heart to the systemic circulatory systems and
    3. type of blood flows through these vessels
    • 1(3). pulmonary arteries (deoxygenated blood) and pulmonary veins (oxygenated blood)
    • 2. aorta (oxygenated blood) and the systemic veins (deoxygenated blood)
  5. pericardial membranes (sheep heart)
    • 1. fibrous pericardium: to protect the heart, anchor it to surrounding structures, and prevent overfilling of the heart with blood
    • 2. parietal pericardium: to provide an additional layer of insulation for the heart
    • 3. visceral pericardium: to attach to the heart and roots of great vessels
  6. auricles (sheep heart)
    • LEFT: to collect oxygenated blood as it leaves the lungs and moves the blood into the left ventricle
    • RIGHT: to collect deoxygenated blood from the bloodstream and moves it into the heart's right ventricle
  7. ventricles (sheep heart)
    • to pump blood to the entire body
    • - right ventricle: to pump blood into the pulmonary trunk
    • - left ventricle: to eject blood into the aorta, the largest artery in the body
  8. aorta (sheep heart)
    to carry and distribute oxygen rich blood to all arteries
  9. brachiocephalic artery (sheep heart)
    to supply blood to the tissues of the brain and the head
  10. left subclavian arteries (from the aortic arch to the left side of the body) right subclavian arteries (extends from the brachiocephalic artery to the right side of the body)
    to supply oxygenated blood to the arms
  11. pulmonary trunk (sheep heart)
    to transmit deoxygenated, carbon dioxide-rich blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
  12. superior vena cavas
    to bring de-oxygenated blood from the head, neck, arm and chest regions of the body to the right atrium
  13. inferior vena cavas
    to bring de-oxygenated blood from the lower body regions (legs, back, abdomen and pelvis) to the right atrium
  14. pulmonary veins
    to transport blood from the lungs back to the heart
  15. aortic semilunar
    to prevent the backflow of blood as it is pumped from the left ventricle to the aorta
  16. pulmonary semilunar
    to prevent the backflow of blood as it is pumped from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
  17. bicuspid values
    to permit blood to flow one way only, from the left atrium into the left ventricle
  18. tricuspid (AV) valves
    to prevent the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the right atrium to the right ventricle
  19. chordae tendineae
    to prevent the cusps from swinging back into the atrium cavity
  20. intraventricular septum
    to separate the ventricles and contributes to the pumping function of the left ventricle
  21. papillary muscles
    to prevent prolapse of anterior and posterior cusps of bicuspid valve during systole
  22. moderator band
    to convey the right branch of the atrioventricular bundle of the conducting system
  23. trabeculae
    to extend from the capsule into the interior of the heart
  24. pectinate muscles
    to increases force of the atrial contraction without increasing heart mass
  25. ligamentum arteriosum
    fibrous remnant of the ductus arteriosus to run between the superior surface of the origin of the left pulmonary artery and the inferior surface of the arch of the aorta
  26. ductus arteriosus
    to shunt blood from the pulmonary arteries to the aorta, bypassing the fluid-filled, developing lungs
  27. coronary sinus
    to collect deoxygenated blood (draining) from the myocardium
  28. fossa ovalis
    a shallow depression that marks the spot
  29. autorhythmic cardiac cells (Atrioventricular node)
    • location: in the inferior portion of the interatrial septum immediately above the tricuspid valve
    • function: to regulate the signals to the ventricles to prevent rapid conduction
    • (atrial fibrillation), as well as making sure that the atria are empty and closed before stimulating the ventricles
  30. autorhythmic cardiac cells (Sinoatrial node)
    • location: in the right atrial wall, just inferior to the entrance of the superior vena cava
    • function: to set the rate of contraction for the heart and spontaneously contracts and generates nerve impulses that travel throughout the heart wall causing both atria to contract
  31. Purkinje fibers
    • location: beneath the endocardium, which is the innermost layer of the heart
    • function: to relay cardiac impulses to the ventricular cells causing the ventricles to contract