MTC Psycholog1120A Chapter 2 Review

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MTC Psycholog1120A Chapter 2 Review
2010-07-28 02:08:49

Review for chapter 2 Marion Technical College.
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  1. Define: Psychobiology
    The study of the biological foundations of behavior and mental processes.
  2. Define: Neuroscience
    The study of the brain and the nervous system.
  3. What are Neurons?
    Individual cells that are the smallest unit of the nervous system.
  4. Define: Hormones
    Chemical substances releasedby the endocrine glads that help regulate bodily activities.
  5. Name the parts of a neuron. *Refer to the 2-1 diagram*
    Cell body, Nucleus, Dendrite, Axon, Myelin(sheath) Axon terminals and Terminal buttons.
  6. What are Dendrites?
    Short fibers that branch out from the cell body and pick up incoming messages.
  7. What is an Axon?
    A single long fiber extending from the cell body, it carries outgoing messages.
  8. What is a Nerve (or Tract)?
    A group of axons bundled together.
  9. What is the Myelin Sheath?
    It is the white fatty covering found on some axons.
  10. What are Ions?
    Electrically charged particles found inside and outside the neuron.
  11. Define: Sensory (or Afferent) Neurons
    Neurons that carry messages from sense organs to the spinal cord or brain.
  12. What are Motor (or Efferent) Neurons?
    Neurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or brain to the muscles and glands.
  13. Define: Interneurons (or Association Neurons)
    Neurons that carry messages from one neuron to another.
  14. Define: Glial Cells (or Glia)
    Cells that insulate and support neurons by holding them together, provide nourishment and remove waste products, prevent harmful substances from passing into the brain, and form the myelin sheath.
  15. What is the "Resting Potential"?
    Electrical charge across a neuron membrane resulting from more positive ions concentrated on the outside and more negative ions on the inside.
  16. What is Polarization?
    The condition of a neuron when the inside is negatively charged relative to the outside; for example, when the neuron is at rest.
  17. Define: Neural Impulse (or Action Potential)
    The firing of a nerve cell.
  18. Define: Graded Potential
    A shift in the electrical charge in a tiny area of a neuron.
  19. What is the Threshold of Excitation?
    The level an impulse must exceed to cause a neuron to fire.
  20. What is the All-Or-None Law?
    The principle that the action potential in a neuron does not vary in strength; either the neuron fires at full strength, or it does not fire at all.
  21. What are the parts of a Terminal Button? *Refer to diagram 2-4*
    Synaptic Space, Synaptic Vesicles, Neurotransmitters and the Receptor.
  22. What is the Synaptic Space (Synaptic Cleft)?
    Tiny gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron.
  23. What is a Synapse?
    An area composed of the axon terminal of one neuron, the synaptic space, and the dendrite of cell body of the next neuron.
  24. Define: Terminal Button (or Synaptic Knob)
    Structure at the end of an axon terminal branch.
  25. What is a Synaptic Vesicles?
    Tiny sacs in a terminal button that release chemicals into the synapse.
  26. What are Neurotransmitters?
    Chemicals released by the synaptic vesicles that travel across the synaptic space and affect adjacent neurons.
  27. What are the Receptor Sites?
    Locations on a receptor neuron into which a specific neurotransmitter fits like a key into a lock.
  28. Define: Neural Plasticity
    The ability of the brain to change in response to activity.
  29. What is Neurogenesis?
    The growth of new neurons.
  30. What is the Central Nervous System (CNS)?
    The division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  31. What is the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ?
    The division of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
  32. Parts in the Hindbrain?
    The area contains the medulla, pons and cerebellum.
  33. What are the 4 major parts of the brain?
    Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Limbic System and the Brain Stem are the four main parts of the brain.
  34. Define: Cerebellum
    Structure in the hindbrain that controls certain reflexes and coordinates the body's movements.
  35. What is the Midbrain?
    Region between the hindbrain and the forebrain; it is important for hearing and sight, and it is one of several places in the brain where pain is registered.
  36. What is the Thalamus?
    The forebrain region that relays and translates incoming messages from the sense receptors, except those for smell.
  37. 4 lobes... What are they and what do they do?
    • Frontal – body movement, precision, decision making, speech production
    • Temporal – memory, personality, processing auditory information,
    • Parietal – sensory area
    • Occipital – primary visual areas
    • They all work together
  38. Reflexes Are...
    information that does not need to go to the brain for processing
  39. What is the Hypothalamus?
    Forebrain region that governs motivation and emotional responses. controls arousal, emotion, food and water intake, sex, body temp. *Controls pituitary gland.
  40. subcortical structures?
    Located beneath cerebral cortex (outer layer)
  41. Limbic system?
    emotional behavior
  42. Define: Amygdala
    emotional reactivity, aggression, odors
  43. Define: Hippocampus
    storing memories
  44. Define: Septum
    emotional reactivity. Regulates emotional behavior
  45. Define: Basal Ganglia
    slow, voluntary movement (laughing, standing, sitting, walking)
  46. Define: Reticular Formation (RF)
    Network of neurons in the hindbrain, the midbrain, and part of the forebrain whose primary function is to alert and arouse the higher parts of the brain.
  47. Define: Cerebral Cortex
    The outer surface of the two cerebral hemispheres that regulates the most complex behavior.
  48. What is the Frontal Lobe?
    Part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement; it is also important for attention, goal-directed behavior, and appropriate emotional experiences.
  49. What are Association Areas?
    Areas of the cerebral cortex where incoming messages from the separate senses are combined into meaningful impressions and outgoing messages from the motor areas are integrated.
  50. Define: Primary Motor Cortex
    The section of the frontal lobe responsible for voluntary movement.
  51. Define: Occipital Lobe
    Part of the cerebral hemisphere that receives and interprets visual information.
  52. Define: Parietal Lobe
    Part of the cerebral cortex that receives sensory information from throughout the body.
  53. Define: Temporal Lobe
    Part of the cerebral hemisphere that helps regulate hearing, balance and equilibrium, and certain emotions and motivations.
  54. Define: Somatic Nervous System
    Part of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages from the senses to the central nervous system and between the central nervous system and the skeletal muscles.
  55. Define: Autonomic Nervous System
    Part of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the central nervous system and the internal organs.
  56. Define: Parasympathetic Division
    Branch of the autonomic nervous system that calms and relaxes the body.
  57. Define: Sympathetic Division
    Branch of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for quick action in emergency. Plays a huge part in "Fight or Flight"
  58. What are Endocrine Glands for?
    To release hormones in the blood stream.
  59. What is the Pituitary Gland?
    A pea-sized gland called the "master gland", which is on the underside of the brain, is connected to the hypothalamus. It regulates other glands.
  60. Define: Thyroid Gland
    Regulates the body's rate of metabolism (And growth), and to a degree, how people are alert and energetic. Located right under the larynx (the voice box)
  61. What are the Adrenal Glands for?
    The two glands above the kidneys affect the body's reaction to stress. Sympathetic nervous system, secretes many hormones including epinephrine and norepinephrine
  62. Describe Gonads.
    Testes in males, ovaries in females. Secrete hormones Masculine (Androgens) and the Feminine (Estrogens). Androgen is predominate in males as Estrogen is in females.
  63. Define: Pineal Gland
    A small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions. Center of brain – activity levels.
  64. What does the Pancreas do?
    It produces insulin and glucagons. It is located in the abdomen.