AP US History Chapter 16

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seely
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AP US History Chapter 16
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2014-09-01 15:56:04
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1863 1877
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The Agony of Reconstruction
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  1. Robert Smalls (1839-1915)
    • Southern black leader of Civil war era
    • allowed to live and work independently as a sailor/pilot because of having a white father
    • May 13, 1862 took command of the PLANTER - a Confederate steamship with a slave crew and surrendered it to the Union navy
    • Became the Caption of the ship and served in the Union for the remainder of the war
    • During reconstruction he served in the SC constitutional convention, state legislature and US Congress
    • He won his seat in Congress 1880 by a decision of Congress after mob violence defeated him in 1878
    • he stood for free public education and federal civil rights laws and legislation that opened up land for purchase at low prices in his own district - resulting in blacks purchasing most of it (Beaufort,SC)
    • ended his career (fall of Reconstruction)as a US customs collector --> a tragic loss of political clout as did many black men
  2. How to reconstruct the Union?
    How far should the federal govt go to secure the freedom and civil rights of 4 million former slaves?
    • White house (President) favored the MINIMAL approach--> quick restoration of the Union with no protection for the freed slaves beyond the prohibition of slavery
    • Congress favored the more radical policy--> readmission of the southern states would be dependent on guarantees that "loyal" men would take the place of the Confederate elite in power and blacks would acquire basic rights of American citizenship
    • --->> the most serious clash between 2 branches of govt in our history
  3. Lincoln had no plan to bring rebellious states back in the Union...he did favor leniency if they gave up the struggle and rejected slavery
    • Dec 1863---Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction ("the 10% plan" or 'presidential reconstruction"
    • .......offered a full pardon to all Southerners (except certain Confederate leaders) who took an oath of allegiance to the Union and excepted the emancipation of slaves
    • .........when 10% took the oath the state could set up a loyal govt
    • -->1864 LA & AK abolished slavery and set up a govt
    • thought it would weaken the southern cause and make it easy for some to switch sides
    • "malice toward none and charity for all"
  4. Congress 1864 refused to seat elected Unionist from LA & AK to the House and Senate
    • a minority of antislavery radicals wanted protection of black rights to be a precondition of readmission
    • a larger group was not prepared to implement civil and political equality for blacks 
    • many simply opposed Lincolns plans they didn't trust that the old ruling class Confederates wouldn't return to power and cheat the North out of its Civil War win
    • Congress felt the president was exceeding his authority by using executive power to restore the Union
    • ---->>president believed that secession, even though it was illegal, didn't put the Confederate states outside the Union in a constitutional sense therefore he could pardon a state that set up a loyal electorate
    • ->Congress felt they forfeited their place in the Union and it was up to Congress to decide if, when and how they would be allowed back in
    • ........based on the Constitutional clause "the US shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Govt"---by seceding from the Union they stop being Republican   and   Congress must set up the conditions of readmission
  5. Wade-Davis Bill --July 1864
    • Congress's reconstruction bill requiring 50% of voters to take an oath of loyalty before they could be allowed back in.
    • the bill gave federal courts the power to enforce emancipation but didn't require black suffrage (the right to vote)
    • Lincoln exercised a pocket veto ---- refusing to sign the bill == stating he didn't want to commit to one Reconstruction plan
    • CONGRESS & LINCOLN's relations reached their low.
    • Lincoln died before his quarrel with Congress was resolved
  6. Andrew Johnson 1865
    --born poor in NC, tailor, no formal schooling, didn't read or write until an adult
    --Jacksonian Democrat--effective stump speaker
    --spokesman for TN nonslaveholding whites 
    --most successful politician in TN
    --state legislator to congress to governor to US Senate (1857)
    • attempted to put the Union back together
    • his policies provoked the most serious crisis in the history of relations between the executive and legislative branches
    • after TN seceded in 1861 he was the only senator to remain loyal and serve the Union 
    • he wasn't antislavery -- or friendly to blacks -- he object only to the fact that slaveholding was the privilege of only a wealthy minority***wished that "every head of family in the United States had one slave to take the drudgery and menial service off his family"
  7. Johnson endorsed Lincoln's emancipation policy and carried it into effect
    • he viewed it as a means of destroying the power of the planter class rather than a recognition of black humanity
    • chosen as Lincoln's running mate because he was a pro administration Democrat, southern unionist 
    • fervent white supremacist
    • wanted to punish southern "traitors" and prevent them from regaining political influence
    • wanted to restore the prewar federal system as quickly as possible without any changes except the states could not legalize slavery or secede
  8. Johnson's Reconstruction policy (May 29, 18665
    • NC and eventually other states were placed under appointed provisional governors chosen from southern politicians who opposed the secession and did not serve the Confederacy
    • they called constitutional conventions and made sure only "loyal" whites were allowed to vote for delegates 
    • Confederate leaders and former office holders were excluded (they need to apply for individual presidential pardons to regain their political and property rights)
    • ----also added were those possessing taxable property in exces of $20,000 (ie: the wealthy planters he hated)
  9. Johnson's conventions met and were urged to
    1. declare the secession illegal
    2. deny (repudiate) the Confederate debt
    3. ratify the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery
    • once this was done the ex-Confederate state could regain their full rights under the Constitution
    • The president was happy but congress was not
    • some states put qualifications on the president's recommendations
    • they all limited suffrage to the whites
    • Johnson was eager to give southern whites a free hand in determining the civil and political status of freed slaves
  10. Republicans become disillusioned and angry
    ---->State legislatures elected under the new constitutions passed "Black Codes" 
    -------special regulations and restrictions on their freedom
    -------appeared to be slavery under a new guise
    • former slaves were subjected to vagrancy and apprenticeships laws that forced African Americans to work and denied them a free choice of employers
    • some states prevented them from testifying in court
    • separate penal codes
    • ----prominent ex Confederate leaders were elceted to Congress in 1865 after being pardoned by Johnson-including Confederate VP Alexander Stephens
  11. December 1865 the House and Senate refused to seat the elected southern delegation
    Congress established a joint committee-chaired by Senator William Pitt Fessenden (ME) to review Reconstruction policy and set up conditions for admittance
  12. Congress takes control on how to reconstruct the Union
    • all blacks are counted as 1 in determining representation (emancipated nullified them being counted as 3/5 a person)
    • favored limiting the political role of ex confederates
    • favored providing some protection for black citizenship
  13. Republican leaders-except extreme Radicals like Charles Sumner:
    • didn't feel blacks were inherently equal to whites
    • all citizens must have the same basic rights and opportunities regardless of natural abilities.
    • southern blacks were likely to be loyal to the Republicans because they emancipated them
    • they could be used to prevent Democrats from returning to national dominance through control of the South.
  14. President vs Congress 1866
    • president vetoed:
    • --a bill extending the Freedmen's Bureau---set up to aid former slaves by providing relief, education, legal help and assistance obtaining land or employment (he succeeded in blocking this)
    • --a civil rights bill meant to nullify the Black Codes and guarantee to freedmen "full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property as is enjoyed by white citizens" (won 2/3 majority to override his veto----1st time Congress has overridden a presidential veto!!!!)
  15. National Union movement--founded in preparation for the 1866 elections
    • Johnson abandoned the Republicans and started a new conservative party uniting a small minority of Republican that supported him and the Democratic party 
    • --the Nationall Union movement was founded to promote Johnson's plan to readmit southern states without further qualifications
  16. Republicans pass the 14th Amendment
    Johnson opposed it
    • gave the Federal government the responsibility for guaranteeing equal rights under to law to all Americans
    • --Section 1 defined national citizenship for the time as extending to "all persons born or naturalized in the US"
    • ---all states were prohibited from depriving "any person of life, liberty,or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person...equal protection of the laws"
    • Section 2 penalized Southern states for denying voting rights to blacks
    • Section 3 denied federal office to anyone who took an oath to support the Constitution and they supported the Confederacy 
    • Section 4 repudiated the Confederate debt
  17. Johnson's popularity and case for states right to manage their own affairs (opposition to the 14th Amendment) along with bloody race riots in New Orleans and Memphis and the presidents antics (slandering opponents and engaging in undignified words with hecklers) weakened his cause
    • the northern voters repudiated (denied the validity of) the administration 
    • the Republican majority in Congress increased to 2/3 in both houses and gained strength
  18. Congress's Reconstruction plan--"Radical Reconstruction" 1867-1868
    • 1st Reconstruction Act (March 2, 1867) 
    • --placed the south under the rule of the army by reorganizing them into 5 military districts
    • Acts of 1867 & 1868 readmitted any state that framed and ratified a new constitution providing for blakc suffrage
    • ----ex- Confederates disqualified from holding federal office under the 14th Amendment  were prohibited form voting for delegates to the constitutional conventions or elections to ratify the conventions work
    • ---based on the assumption that once blacks had the vote they would have the power to protect themselves against white supremacists' efforts to deny them their rights to vote
    • ---limited the need for federal authority
    • the Republicans didn't like a centralized government or extended military rule
    • --despite reservations radicals (Stevens) supported readmitting southern states of black suffrage
    • -------the problem was enforcing equal suffrage under postwar South conditions
  19. "regeneration before Reconstruction"
    • Senator Charles Sumner (MA), Congressman Thaddeus Stevens(PA), and George Julian (IN) wanted to reshape the south before readmitting them into the Union 
    • ---required an extended period of military rule, confiscation and redistribution of large landholdings among freemen and federal aid for schools to educate blacks and whites for citizenship
    • ---would take decades before the Union was whole
  20. "regeneration before Reconstruction"
    • -Johnson disapproved of the reconstitution-He dismissed officeholders who sympathized with Radical Reconstruction
    • -he countermanded the orders of generals in charge of southern military districts
    • -some Radical generals were transferred and replaced by conservative Democrats-Congress passed the "Tenure of Office Act"
    • -requiring Senate approval for the removal of cabinet officers and other officials who were appointed with the consent of Senate
    • -a rider to an army appropriations bill - limiting Johnson's authority to issue order to military commanders
    • -Johnson felt they violated the constitutional doctrine of separation of powers-Johnson discharged the Secretary of War Edwin Stanton (Radical) 1867January 10868 Johnson order General Grant to replace Stanton
    • --he refused to defy Congress-Johnson appointed General Lorenzo Thomas as head of the War Department
    • -House voted to impeach the president February 24 1868 and placed him on trial before Senate for a violation of the Tenure of Office Act
    • --->7 Republicans voted for acquittal
    • --they feared removal of a president for essentially political reasons would threaten the constitutional balance of powers and would open the way to legislative supremacy over the executive
    •  ----->Johnson was not removed from office (by one vote) but he did pledge to enforce the Reconstruction Acts which he did until the end of his term
  21. Reconsturction of the South
    • the south was devastated, demoralized and destitute
    • the blacks wanted to be independent of their former master
    • they wanted land, education and the right to vote
  22. Social and Economic Adjustments
    • there was no investment capital to reinvest in the rebuilding of the south
    • emancipation of the slaves took away the propertied class' most valuable and productive assets 
    • a new labor system needed to be created southern prosperity would continue to depend on cotton and the plantation was the most efficient was to produce it
    • ex slaves wanted to hold on to the family based communal work they were use to ( family task system rather than individual piecework system)
    • they wanted to stay on land their families had farmed for years--not move to land as individual farmers
    • General Sherman issued and order in January 1865 setting aside the islands and coastal land of GA and SC for black occupancy on 40-acre plots
    • Freedmen's Bureau was responsible for hundreds of thousands of acres of abandoned or confiscated land and was authorized to make 40-acre grants to black settler for 3 yr periods after which they would have the option to buy at low prices
    • by June 1865 40,000 black farmer were working 300,000 acres of land they thought would be their own
    • President Johnson pardoned the owner of most of the land ---->>>proposals for and effective land confiscation and redistribution failed -->>because of property rights, giving them something they allegedly had not earned and the desire to restore cotton production as quickly as possible to stabilize the economy
    • with no $, no land and now way to get ther next meal ex-slaves still did not want to settle down and commit to wage labor for their former masters
  23. Contract labor system 1866
    • common form of agricultural employment
    • workers commit to a year in return for fixed wages---a substantial was withheld till havest
    • many planters drove hard bargains, abused their workers or cheated them
    • the Freedmen's Bureau was suppose to review and enforce the contracts--->some did help the workers others helped the planters
    • the Bureau was phased out completely by 1869
    • contract labor system was abandoned
  24. alternative capital-labor relationship----sharecropping
    • first in small groups called squads
    • then as individual families blacks worked a piece of land independently for a fixed share of the crop---usually half
    • it didn't cost the landlords much before the harvest
    • the system forced the tenant to share the risk of crop failure or falling prices
    • this was initially a step up from wage labor until the 1870's when it became a new kind of servitude
    • croppers had to live on credit until their cotton was sold 
    • ...planters and merchants would charge them very high rate of interest 
    • creditors were allowed to deduct what was owed from the tenants share leaving them with little profit or even owing
  25. African Americans living in the cities
    • found themselves living in an increasingly segregated society
    • Black Codes 1865 attempted to require separation of the races in public places and facilities-->most were deemed violations of Civil Rights Act of 1866
    • the same results were accomplished by private initiative and community pressure
    • 1868 black-supported Republican governments passed civil rights acts requiring equal access to public facilities but little was done to enforce them
    • blacks segregated themselves as well --- in churches, education
    • blacks and white shared worlds -- in work (blacks dealt with white employers) and politics (blacks tried to exercise their rights as citizens)
  26. Political Reconstruction in the South
    state governments of 1865 had little or no regard for the rights of freed slaves
    • some made black unemployment a crime-forcing them to make long term contracts with white employers or be arrested for vagrancy
    • some limited the rights of African Americans to own property or work as anything other than a laborer or servant
    • Congress, the military and the Freedmen's Bureaus made these codes illegal but private violence and discrimination was rampant
    • 100's-1000's of blacks were murdered 1865-1866 but few were ever charged
  27. Military rule in 1867
    • designed to protect former slaves from violence and intimidation
    • When new constitutions were approved and states were readmitted to the Union 1868 the problem became more severe.
    • White opponents of Radical Reconstruction began systematic terrorism and organized mob violence to keep blacks away from the polls
    • blacks tried to defend themselves with their own militia groups--they weren't powerful enough
    • the military presence was reduced leaving the new Republican regimes to fight a losing battle against armed white supremacists
    • "there was simply no federal force large enough to give heart to black Republicans or to bridle southern white violence"
  28. The southern Republican party 1867
    • made up of:  businessmen--interest was commerical and industrial development; poor white farmers--expected the party to favor their needs over the wealthy landowners and to come to their aid with special legislation when they lost their homesteads to creditors; and newly enfranchised blacks--whose concerns were education, civil rights and landownership
    • each group had its own goals and din't fully support the others
    • in power from 1-9 yrs depending on the state
    • **south's first adequate system of public education
    • **democratized state and local government
    • appropriated funds for a large expansion of public services and responsibilities
    • their major effort was to foster economic development and restore prosperity by subsidizing the construction of railroads -- this failed miserably due to extravagance,corruption and local political pressure
    • ---->>the Panic of 1873 brought many southern state governments to the verge of bankruptcy and railroad building came to an end --- the Republicans were blamed for ruining the southern economy
    • Radical regimes failed to conduct business honestly and efficiently
    • embezzlement, bribery,waste and graft were common
    • this was not a result of the extension of suffrage 
    • it was part of a national pattern when private interests considered buying government favors to be a part of the cost of doing business and politicians expected to profit from these favor
    • s
  29. blacks in during Reconstruction 1869-1880
    • 16 blacks served in Congress
    • 2 in the Senate
    • only in SC did blacks make up a majority of even one house of the state legislature
    • no black governor were elected during Reconstruction (Pinchback served for a time as acting governor of LA)
    • some black legislators accepted "loans" from railroad lobbyists but they voted the will of their constituents on civil rights or education
    • many opponents of Radical Reconstruction persuaded many Americans that a good government was the same as white supremacy
    • demonstrated on average to have more integrity and competence than their white counterparts
  30. The Age of Grant
    • Ulysses S Grant was the only president between Jackson and Wilson to serve 2 full and consecutive terms
    • favored by the electorate 
    • considered a failure 
    • blamed for the corruption that surfaced during his administration
    • failure of his southern policy
    • priority was to his old friends and politicians that supported him
  31. Rise of the Money Question
    • greenbacks-paper money issued during the war
    • 1866 Hugh McCulloch, secretary of the treasury under Johnson wanted to withdraw greenbacks from circulation and replace them with "sound" money (hard-money)
    • opposition to hard-money came from credit hungry west and expansion minded manufacturers
    • defenders of hard money were commercial and financial interests in the east
    • 1869-1870 a Republican-controlled Congress passed laws that payed in gold most bonds but eased the burden of the Civil War debt y exchanging bonds soon coming due for those that would be payable in 10-15-30 yrs
    • Grant decided to allow greenbacks to stay in the economy until they became equal to gold then exchanging them without any economic backlash
    • Due to the Panic of 1873 which brought much of the economy to its knees Congress  authorized a modest issue of new greenbacks
    • Grant vetoed the bill
    • 1875 Congress - Senator John Sherman (OH)enacted the Specie Resumption Act-a limited reduction of greenbacks leading to full resumption of specie payment by Jan 1, 1879--->suffering farmers and workers were angry
    • 1876 an independent Greenback party entered the political arena (Peter Cooper-received an insignificant number of votes)
    • 1878 the Greenback Labor party polled more than a million votes and elected fourteen congressmen 
    • this kept the money issue alive into the following decade
  32. Retreat from Reconstruction
    • 15th Amendment 1869-passed by Congress
    • ---------------------1870-ratified by the states
    • prohibited any state from denying a citizen the right to vote because of race, color or  previous condition of servitude
    • states could still impose literacy tests, property qualifications or poll taxes to all racial groups--->stripping southern blacks of the right to vote
    • women led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony campaigned against the 15th Amendment because they were angered that it didn't include women in the right to vote
    • Lucy Stone supported the amendment on the grounds that it was "the Negro's hour' and women could afford to wait a few years
  33. Ku Klux Klan
    • 1868-1872
    • main threat to southern Republican regimes
    • along with other secret societies 
    • goal to restore white supremacy by intimidating blacks who wish to exercise their political rights
    • first organized in TN in 1866
    • lawless and brutal tactics by "night riders"
    • grassroots secret vigilante movement -- not a centralized conspiracy
    • Grant lost in LA & GA due to the Klan-(Knights of the White Camelia
    • focused on Republican state governments 
    • only the Arkansas militiawas able to bring them down
    • Democrats came to power in AK, TN, NC, SC because of the Klan
    • Congress and Grant passed a series of laws (1870-1871) making interfering with voting rights a federal crime
    • 1871-1872 thousands of suspect Klansmen were arrested by the military or US marshals
    • resulted in a fair and peaceful election in 1872
    • Democratic-Conservatives changed their focus from support of black suffrage and government aid to business -- to -- white supremacy and traditonal Democratic and agrarian hostility to government promotion of economic development----> resulted in increased violence
    • open violence  that was effective because the north was upset about corrupt Republicans
    • Grant used militia for the last time 1874 in LA against the White League who tried to overthrow a Republican government accused of stealing an election
    • 1875 request for assistance with a bloody race riot was denied resulting in only 7 Republican votes (out of 2000)
    • 1876 Republicans won only 2 southern states--north was tired of military action to sustain Republican governments and black voting rights
  34. Spoilsmen versus Reformers
    • 1869 Grants brother-in-law helped Jay Gould corner the gold market
    • 1868-1872the speaker of the house (then vp) Colfax received stock from the perpetrator of fraud involving the Union Pacific Railroad and Credit Mobilier (a construction company that served as a fraudulent device for siphoning off profits that should have gone to the stockholders)
    •  
    • 1872 Grant's wife's brother-in-law controlled federal patronage as a customs collector in New Orleans
  35. Liberal Republicans
    • 1872 Republican who broke from Grant because of corruption
    • committed to honest government and reconciliation between the North and South 
    • reform the civil serve
    • laissez-faire economics--->low tariffs, end of rr subsidies, and hard money
    • conservative
    • nominated Horace Greely-editor of the New York Tribune--he was also nominated by the Democrats-->because he promised to end Radical Reconstruction by restoring "self government" to the south
  36. Grants second term 1872
    • Grant won because Greely was a poor campaigner
    • Republicans stuck with Grant because they didn't want ex-rebels returning t power in the south
    • Democrats stayed away from the polls because Greely had been a staunch Republican
    • Grant won 56% of the popular vote (most between Andrew Jackson and Teddy Roosevelt)
    • 1875 federal revenue official conspired with distiller to defraud the government of millions of dollars in liquor taxes
    • Grant's private secretary, Orville Babcock, was indicted as a member of the "Whiskey Ring"---saved from conviction by the president
    • Grant's secretary of war, William Belknap was impeached by the House after taking bribes for the sale of Indian trading post---> he avoided conviction in the Senate only by resigning from office before his trial--Grant participated in a cover up
    • Grant didn't prosper for these misdeeds but he didn't take action against them and he tried to shield them from justice
  37. Reunion and the New South
    • The final liquidation of the Congressional Reconstruction (1877) opened the way for reconciliation
    • the civil and political rights of African Americans were continuously stripped away by white supremacists
    • lower class whites saw their interest sacrificed to those of capitalist and landlords
    • the "New South" remained poor and open to exploitation by northern business interests
  38. Compromise of 1877
    • the election of 1876---Rutherford Hayes (OH) Republican vs  Governor Samuel Tilden (NY) Democrat
    • Tilden won the popular vote 
    • Republicans controlled SC, FL, LA--were contested
    • after months undecided Congress appointed a special electoral commission 15 members (7R + 7D + 1 Independent) the Independent resigned and was replaced by a Republican
    • all disputed votes were given to Republican Hayes pending ratification by both houses of Congress
    • the Republican Senate approved it but the Democrats in the House plan a filibuster delaying the final count till after the inauguration day
    • this would mean there was no majority and the House would decide (Tilden)
    • a secret meeting with conservative southern Democrats willing to abandon the filibuster if the last troops were withdrawn and "home rule" restored to the south
    • an informal bargain was reach "the Compromise of 1877"
    • Hayes would be president and the southern blacks would be abandoned to their fate--end of federal support for the Radical regimes
    • Hayes immediately ordered the army not to resist a Democratic takeover of state governments in LA & SC (the last Radical governments)
    • The battle over the south by the Radical northern Republicans became a campaign ritual
  39. the New South
    • redeemers---the men who came to power after the Radical Reconstruction fell 
    • the redeemers were: members of the Old South's ruling planter class-wanting order with as few changes as possible; middle class favoring commercial and industrial interest over agrarian groups called for a Ne w South committed to diversified economic development; professional politicians bending with the prevailing winds such as Joseph Brown (GA) who had been a secessionist, a wartime governor, a leading scalawag Republican and now a Democratic Redeemer
    • -power brokers mediating among the dominant interest groups of the South in ways that served their own political advantage
    • agreed on laissez-faire (government should be limited and should not intervene openly and directly in the economy) and white supremacy
    • Redeemers responded only to privileged and entrenched interest groups (landlord, merchants, industrialist) offering littleor nothing to tenants, small farmers and working people
    • 1880s-industrialization gains steam
    • White supremacy was the rally cry of the redeemers--they could stay in power by claiming the Democratic were trying to divide the white man's party opening the way for the black domination
    • racism deflected the attention from the economic groups without clout
    • the new governments cut money for schools and other needed public services
    • ---embezzlement and bribery were common
    • ---LA suffered from a corrupt lottery for decades
    • Redeemers neglects the small white farmers
    • --they and blacks suffered from crop lien system( local  merchants who advanced credit at high rates of interest during the gowind season had the right to take possession of the harvested cro on terms that bvuried farmers deeper and deepr in debt--->resulting in whites losing title to their homesteads and become tenants
    • after a depression of cotton prices agrarian protesters challenged the ruling elite---Southern Farmers' Alliance of the late 1880's then supporting the Populist party of the 1890's
    • Governor Wade Hampton (SC) pledged that African Americans would not be reduced to second class citizens
    • blacks were "bulldozed" into voting Democratic or not at all- or being beaten, losing their jobs, or homes
    • Democrats controlled the electoral machinery--stuffing ballot boxes, discarding unwanted votes, reporting fraudulent totals, new voting requirements to discourage black participation
    • full disfranchisement didn't occur until literacy tests and other legalized obstacles were imposed in the 1890-1910=mockery of the 15th Amendment
    • blacks continued to vote in some localities--the one Robert Smalls represented
    • some even elected black Republicans to Congress during the immediate post Reconstruction period.
    • the last Representative George White (NC) served till 1901
  40. Dark night of racism
    • 187 blacks were lynched every year 1889-1899 for offenses against white supremacy
    • those convict of petty crimes were leased out to private contractors
    • convict-lease system rented prisoners from the state to treat as they saw fit 
    • mortality increased 25%
    • segregation laws reminded them they were unfit to associate with whites on any basis that implied equality
    • Supreme Court decisions 1875-1896 gutted the Reconstruction amendments and the legislation passed to enforce them
    • defenseless against political and social discrimination
    • Henry McNeal Turner -- born free in SC became a minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church just before the outbreak of the Civil War
    • worked for the Freedmen's Bureau and left due to racism
    • 1867 elected to GA constitutional convention 
    • 1868 elected to state legislature - served until the whites won control and expelled all blacks
    • for black emigration to Africa
    • speech say white were never to be trusted
    • Early advocate of total separation of races
  41. Sectional Reconstruction
    • the Union and Confederates were coming together
    • the north had to allow the south to have a free hand on their dealings with blacks (new form of servitude)

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