Ch15T1-4.txt

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aphy101
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281768
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Ch15T1-4.txt
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2015-01-14 17:11:18
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profmwinston
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Chapter 15 Topics 1-4
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  1. The closed system of blood circulation, consisting of the heart and its vessels.
    Cardiovascular System
  2. Sends oxygen-poor blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and unload CO2.
    Pulmonary Circuit
  3. Sends oxygen-rich blood and nutrients to all body cells and removes wastes.
    Systemic Circuit
  4. Oxygenates blood to the heart muscle tissue.
    Coronary Circuit
  5. List the 3 Circuits of blood flow found in the body.
    1) Pulmonary 2) Systemic 3) Coronary
  6. A covering that encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood vessels to which it attaches.
    Pericardium
  7. An outer, fibrous bag of the pericardium that surrounds a delicate, double-layered serous membrane.
    Fibrous Pericardium
  8. The innermost layer of the serous membrane that covers the heart.
    Visceral Pericardium
  9. Forms the inner lining of the fibrous pericardium at the base of the heart.
    Parietal Pericardium
  10. List the 3 coverings of the heart in correct order.
    1) Fibrous Pericardium 2) Parietal Pericardium 3) Visceral Pericardium
  11. The space between the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium that contains serous fluid, secreted by the pericardial membranes, that reduces friction between them when the heart moves within them
    Pericardial Cavity
  12. Layer of the heart wall that is a serous membrane covered with epithelium that forms a protective outer covering and secretes serous fluid.
    Epicardium (Visceral Pericardium)
  13. Layer of the heart wall that is cardiac muscle tissue separated by connective tissue that contracts to pump blood out of the heart chambers.
    Myocardium
  14. Layer of the heart wall that is a membrane of epithelium and underlying connective tissue that forms a protective inner lining of the chambers and valves.
    Endocardium
  15. List the 3 layers of the wall of the heart from the outside in.
    1) Epicardium 2) Myocardium 3) Endocardium
  16. The upper chambers of the heart that have thin walls and receive blood returning to the heart.
    Atria
  17. Small, earlike projections that extend anteriorly from the atria, slightly increasing atrial volume.
    Auricles
  18. The lower chambers of the heart that force the blood out of the heart into arteries.
    Ventricles
  19. List the four chambers of the heart.
    The upper left and right atria, and the lower left and right ventricles
  20. List the two receiving (passive) chambers of the heart.
    The Atria
  21. List the two pumping (active) chambers of the heart.
    The Ventricles
  22. Why are the atria considered "passive" and the ventricles considered "active?"
    The ventricles must force blood to move against a resistance to flow, the atria do not
  23. The structure that separates the right from the left atrium.
    Interatrial Septum
  24. The structure that separates the two ventricles.
    Interventricular Septum
  25. An opening through which the atrium on each side communicates with its corresponding ventricle.
    Atrioventricular Orifice
  26. This guards the atrioventricular orifice.
    Atrioventricular Valve (AV Valve)
  27. Deepest groove on the surface of the heart which encircles the heart between the atria and ventricles; it marks the division between these chambers and contains major blood vessels that supply the heart tissues.
    Atrioventricular Sulcus
  28. Two of these (anterior and posterior) mark the septum that separates the right and left ventricles.
    Interventricular Sulci
  29. This valve guards the atrioventricular orifice between the right atrium and right ventricle; it permits the blood to move from the right atrium into the right ventricle and prevents it from moving in the opposite direction.
    Tricuspid Valve
  30. Strong, fibrous strings that attach to the cusps of the tricuspid valve on the ventricular side; they originate from the papillary muscles, which pull on these strings as the tricuspid valve closes to prevent the cusps from swinging back into the right atrium.
    Chordae Tendinae
  31. Small mounds of cardiac muscle tissue that project inward from the walls of the ventricle; they contract when the right ventricle contracts, and as the tricuspid valve closes, they pull on the chordae tendinae and prevent the cusps from swinging back into the right atrium.
    Papillary Muscles
  32. This valve prevents blood from moving from the pulmonary trunk into the right ventricle during ventricular relaxation.
    Pulmonary (Semilunar) Valve
  33. This valve prevents blood from moving from the left ventricle into the left atrium during ventricular contraction.
    Mitral (Bicuspid) Valve
  34. This valve prevents blood from moving from the aorta into the left ventricle during ventricular relaxation.
    Aortic (Semilunar) Valve
  35. List the four valves of the heart and where they are located.
    1) Tricuspid Valve (right atrioventricular orifice) 2) Pulmonary Valve (entrance to pulmonary trunk) 3) Mitral Valve (left atrioventricular orifice) 4) Aortic Valve (entrance to aorta)
  36. What is the function of the chordae tendinae?
    To prevent the cusps of the tricuspid valve from swinging back into the right atrium, and to prevent the cusps of the mitral valve from swinging back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction
  37. What valves are also known as AV Valves because of their location between the atria and the ventricles?
    Tricuspid and Mitral Valves
  38. What valves are also known as semilunar valves because of their shape?
    Aortic and Pulmonary Valves
  39. What is the carbonic acid disassociation formula?
    CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3-
  40. What is Fick's Law? (rate of diffusion)
    (CG x SA x T)/(MW x MT)

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