Chemistry Unit 1

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smittykitty
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281774
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Chemistry Unit 1
Updated:
2014-08-31 20:47:09
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chemistry
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Unit 1
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  1. Al
    Aluminum
  2. Sb
    Antimony
  3. Arsenic
    As
  4. Ba
    Barium
  5. Bi
    Bismuth
  6. B
    Boron
  7. Br
    Bromine
  8. Cd
    Cadmium
  9. Ca
    Calcium
  10. C
    Carbon
  11. Cs
    Cesium
  12. Cl
    Chlorine
  13. Cr
    Chromium
  14. Co
    Cobalt
  15. Cu
    Copper
  16. F
    Flourine
  17. Au
    Gold
  18. He
    Helium
  19. H
    Hydrogen
  20. I
    Iodine
  21. Fe
    Iron
  22. Pb
    Lead
  23. Li
    Lithium
  24. Mg
    Magnesium
  25. Mn
    Manganese
  26. Hg
    Mercury
  27. Mo
    Molybdenum
  28. Ne
    Neon
  29. Ni
    Nickel
  30. N
    Nitrogen
  31. O
    Oxygen
  32. P
    Phosphorus
  33. Pt
    Platinum
  34. K
    Potassium
  35. Rn
    Radon
  36. Si
    silicon
  37. Ag
    Silver
  38. Na
    Sodium
  39. S
    Sulfur
  40. Sn
    Tin
  41. U
    Uranium
  42. Zn
    Zinc
  43. chemistry
    study of the composition, structure, properties, and changes of matter
  44. the composition of matter relates to...
    the kinds of elements it contains
  45. the structure of matter relates to...
    the ways the atoms of these elements are arranged
  46. property
    any characteristic that gives a sample of matter its unique identity
  47. molecule
    entity composed of two or more atoms with the atoms attached to one another in a specific way
  48. What are the three states of matter?
    Gas, liquid, solid
  49. Pure substances
    elements and compounds
  50. Element
    has a single kind of atom and is represented by a chemical symbol consisting of one or  two letters
  51. compound
    composed of two or more elements joined chemically
  52. The law of constant composition AKA law of definite proportions
    States that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same
  53. Homogeneous mixtures
    Also called solutions; composition is uniform throughout; the different parts of the mixture are not visible
  54. Heterogeneous mixture
    composition is not uniform, it varies from one part of the mixture to another; different parts of the mixture are visible
  55. Physical change
    matter does not change its composition; changes of state
  56. Chemical change
    a substance is transformed into a chemically different substance
  57. Intensive properties
    are independent of the amount of matter examined and are used to identify substances
  58. Extensive properties
    Relate to the amount of substance present
  59. Precision
    indicates how closely different measurements of a quantity agree with one another
  60. accuracy
    indicates how well a measurement agrees with the accepted or "true" value
  61. Group
    Elements in a column
  62. Period
    Elements in a horizontal row
  63. Metallic elements (metals)
    • Comprise the majority of the elements, dominate the left side and the middle of the periodic table;
    • Physical properties- shiny, ductile, and malleable; solid at room temperature; good conductors of heat and electricity
  64. Nonmetals
    Located on the upper right side; physical properties-dull, brittle, poor conductors; many are gases at room temperature; good insulators
  65. Metalloids
    elements that lie along the line that separates metals from nonmetals; are better conductors than nonmetals, but not as good as metals; used as semiconductors and insulators
  66. Main group elements
    AKA representative elements; represented by the letter A
  67. Transition elements
    represented by the letter B
  68. What are two elements that are liquid at room temperature?
    Bromine (nonmetal) and Mercury (metal)
  69. What are the chemical properties of metals?
    Atoms of metals lose electrons to form cations (positive ions)
  70. What are the chemical properties of nonmetals?
    Atoms gain electrons to form anions (negative ions) when reacting with metals; when reacting with nonmetals, they share electrons with other nonmetal atoms to form molecules (covalent compounds)
  71. Group 1A
    Alkali metals
  72. Group 7A
    Halogens
  73. What are the 7 diatomic elements?
    I, Br, Cl, F, O, N, H

    I Bring Clay For Our New House
  74. Mega; M
    • 106
    • or
    • 1 Megameter (Mm)= 1 X 10m
  75. Kilo; k
    103
  76. Centi; c
    10-2
  77. Milli; m
    10-3
  78. Micro; ℵ
    10-6
  79. Nano; n
    10-9
  80. SI preferred unit for length or distance
    Meter; m
  81. SI preferred unit for mass
    kilogram; kg
  82. SI preferred unit for time
    second; s or sec
  83. SI preferred unit for amount of substance
    mole; mol
  84. SI preferred unit for temperature
    Kelvin; K
  85. Systematic error
    precision is good but accuracy is poor
  86. How many nonzero numbers are significant in a measured number?
    • All of them:
    • 38.15 has 4
    • 0.54 has 2
    • 122.55 has 5
  87. When are zeros counted as significant numbers?
    • When they are sandwiched between two sig figs; 50.8 has 3; 0.702 has 3; 0.40505 has 5
    • When they follow a nonzero number and a decimal point is shown; 25,000. has 5; 200.0 has 4; 0.0460 has 3; 1.600 has 4
  88. When are zeros NOT counted as significant figures?
    • When they come before nonzero digits in numbers smaller than one (leading); 0.008 has 1; 0.0156 has 3; 0.0042 has 2; 0.000262 has 3
    • When they follow nonzero numbers and act as placeholders (trailing); 25,000 has 2; 200 has 1; 48600 has 3; 25,005,000 has 5
  89. Exact numbers
    • Represent objects that are counted- 2 soccer balls, 4 pizzas
    • Are from numbers in a defined relationship- 1 foot = 12 inches, 1 meter = 100 cm
  90. When multiplying or dividing measured numbers...
    The final answer must have the same number of sig figs overall as the measurement with the FEWEST sig figs OVERALL
  91. When adding or subtracting measured numbers...
    The final answer must have the same number of DECIMAL PLACES as the measurement with the FEWEST DECIMAL PLACES
  92. How many m = 1 km?
    1000 m
  93. How many mm = 1 m?
    1000 mm
  94. How many mm = 1 cm?
    10 mm
  95. How many mL = 1 L?
    1000 mL
  96. How many mL = 1 dL?
    100 mL
  97. How many cm= 1 mL?
    1 cm3
  98. How many g = 1 kg?
    1000 g
  99. How many mg = 1 g?
    1000 mg
  100. How can a percentage be expressed as a ratio?
    Same units on top and bottom and the 100 on top or bottom of the ratio
  101. What is the density of water?
    1.00 g/mL
  102. Specific gravity
    Density of the substance relative to (divided by) the density of water
  103. What is the equation for density
    D= 
  104. What is the equation for mass?
    M = D x V
  105. What is the equation for volume?
    V = 
  106. What is the equation for Fahrenheit?
    F = 9/5(C) + 32
  107. What is the equation for Celcius?
    C = 5/9(F - 32)
  108. What is the equation for Kelvin?
    K = C + 273

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