# notebook exam 1

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1. Thomas Edison
discovered fluoroscope. real time. the difference between x-ray and fluoroscope is the dynamic
2. x-ray tube has two side they are
positive and negative.
3. negative
cathode-filament
4. positive
anode-target
5. the difference between positive and negative is
the kilo-voltage (kVP)= high potential difference
6. the % of x-ray
• 1% x-ray
• 99% heat
7. common inches and cm of x-ray cassettes
8 x 10 inches multiply by 2.5 = 20x25cm

10 x 12 inches multiply by 2.5=25x30cm

14 x 17 inches multiply by 2.5=35x43
8. for x-rays to be produced you need 4 things
vacuum=pyrix glass

source of electron=filament

target for electron=anode: the focal spot

high potential difference between the source and the target=negative and positive=kVp
9. photon
the smallest possible unit of electromagnetic energy. x-ray is a photon
10. voltage between source and target
the negative will go to the positive. the energy is converted into 99%heat and 1% x-ray
11. negative and positive is
the potential difference. thermoeotic emission = heat related and form a space charge
12. the target is the
anode
13. wavelength
distance from one crest to the next
14. frequency is the
number of times per second that a crest passes a given point
15. a increase in frequency will
decrease wavelength and equal more energy
16. kVp controls
wavelength and frequency
travel in a straight line

cannot be refracted by a lens

diverges into space from its source

cannot be detected
18. 3 types of x-ray
primary-what leaves the x-ray tube to the patient

• scatter (secondary)Once
• primary beam hits solid matter, what is not absorbed will scatter in many
• directions

• remnant-what passes through the body what's left over Remainder of the primary been after its been attenuated Pattern
• of intensity is what creates the radiographic image
19. The beam that passes through the patient and exposes the film is called “Exit

”This“Exit” radiation is what creates the image.
• White image on
• film is what was absorbed

Black is what was exposed

Shades of gray are what was attenuated
20. LATENT IMAGE
THE INVISIBLE IMAGE ON AN EXPOSED FILM OR PSP PRIOR TO PROCESSING
21. MANIFEST IMAGE
A VISIBLE IMAGE AFTER PROCESSING
Time (s)

Milliamperes (mA)

Millamperes per second (mAs)

Kilovoltage Peak (kVp)

Distance
23. time
• Duration of the exposure of

measured in seconds
24. Effect on Film
• Longer exposure Time will increase
• Density of Film & Patient Exposure

Shorter exposure Time will decrease Density of Film & Patient Exposure
25. Milliamperage (mA)
the quantity current going to the filament
26. Milliamperers per second (mAs)
the total amount of radiation expoure
27. kilovoltage peak (kVp)
controls the energy of the radiation beam. also known as high potential difference. more energy more kVp
28. distance
is the SID how far away from the source x-ray tube

SID inverse square law

the closer more exposure

farther away less exposure
29. SID
Source to Image Receptor Distance the x-ray tube to the cassette itself
30. SOD
Source to Object Distance
31. OID
Object to Image Receptor Distance
32. Focal Spot
controls detail

• the smaller the focal spot the better the detail
• the larger the focal spot the less detail
33. Four Principles in Image Quality
Density

Contrast

Detail

Distortion
34. Density
The amount of blackness of an image

Also known as optical density

Controlled by mAs

Increase mAs = increase blackness

Decrease mAs = decrease blackness
35. Contrast controlled by kVp
• The degree of difference between
• the light and dark areas of an x-ray

High contrast =  more black and white

Low contrast = overall gray appearance
36. Detail
The degree of sharpness of a structural line on an x-ray  Focal spot size
37. Distortion
• Refers to a variation in the size and/or
• shape of the image in comparison to the object it represents

misreprensentation of size and shape

size- in x-ray magnification looks bigger than it is

shape - shorting or elongation
Roentgen (R)

Roentgen equivalent in man (REM)
39. Roentgen (R)
Amount of radiation in air (not pt. dose)
radiation dose what goes into the patient
41. Roentgen equivalent in man (REM)
the biological effect the damage to the body
42. not all x-rays are equal

at least 6 feet from the beam
43. 3 CARDINAL RULES FOR RADIATION
SAFETY
• time
• distance
• shielding
44. Inverse Square Law

• The intensity of the radiation is INVERSELY proportional to the SQUARE of the
• Distance
45. ALARA
As low as reasonably achievable

For X-ray Techs, the maximum radiation dose per year is 5 rem or 50mSv

• Applies to workers age 18 and over and
• not pregnant.
46. Device for monitoring radiation exposure.
OSL-optically stimulated luminescence (read by laser)
47. Imaging Systems
• Analog
• Film Screen

• Digital
• CR
• DR
48. Fluoroscopy
Dynamic or real time imaging

(X-ray are static/still images)

Alarm sounds after 5 minutes of total exposure
 Author: 139shay ID: 281819 Card Set: notebook exam 1 Updated: 2014-09-01 19:33:25 Tags: notebook exam Folders: note book exam 1 Description: notebook exam 1 Show Answers: