Card Set Information
Chemistry 110 Unit 2 (p6-10, 44-69)
The characteristics of the matter
Matter classified by ____ and ____
State and composition classifies ____
3 states of matter?
Gaseous state, liquid state, and solid state are the 3 states of ____
A recognizable difference in the appearance of a substance without causing any change in its composition or identity
Observed or measured without changing the composition or identity of a substance
Result in change of composition and can be observed only through chemical reactions
Chemical substance is converted to one or more different substance by rearranging, removing, replacing, or adding atoms.
: carbon dioxide + water -(light, chlorophyll)-> sugar + oxygen
(Synonymous w/ chemical reaction)
: process of formation of sugar
Property of matter that is
of a substance
Substance with only one component.
Ex- Pure water:made only of particles containing 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom (H
A pure substance that cannot be changed into a simpler form of matter by any chemical reaction
Substance resulting from the combination of 2 or more elements in a definite, reproducible way
Combination of 2 or more pure substances in which each substance retains its own identity.
: alcohol and water can be combined in a mixture.
They coexist as pure substances because they do not undergo a chemical reaction.
Mixture may be homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Mixture with uniform composition, its particles are well mixed, or thoroughly intermingled.
: Alcohol and water is described as a solution.
Mixture with nonuniform composition.
: Salt and pepper
Basic structural of an element, which is the smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.
Made of proton, neutron, and electron.
Nucleus of atom
Small, dense, positively charged region in the center of the atom.
Composed of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons.
Positive charge, in atom's nucleus.
Uncharged, in atom's neucleus
Negative charged, surrounding the nucleus.
Low mass compared to protons and neutrons.
Atomic number (Z)
Equal to the number of protons in the atom
Mass number (A)
Equal to the
of the number of protons and neutrons
Notations of atom?
A- mass number
: # of protons & neutrons
Z- atomic number
: # of protons
X- place for atom name
E- place for charge (+/-)
Atoms of the same element having different masses
because they contain different number of neutrons
. (Have different mass numbers)
: carbon-12 (C-12), carbon-14 (C-14)
average of the masses of each isotope that makes up the element.
atomic mass unit
1 amu = 1.66 x10
Dalton's Atomic Theory
All matter consists of tiny particles called atoms
An atom cannot be created, divided, destroyed, or converted to any other type of atom.
Atoms of a particular element have identical properties
Atoms of different elements have different properties
Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to produce compounds (stable combination of atoms)
Chemical change involves joining, separating, or rearranging atoms
Electrically charged particles resulting from gain or loss of electrons by an atom
Result of parent atom gaining one or more electrons
gains an electron
Result when parent atom lose one or more electrons
loses an electron
: Orbit level an electron is at, thus fix energy at fix level
Only allowed location for electrons
Concept of fix energy and fix levels
: closer neutron move farther from nucleus
: farther neutron move closer to nucleus
Orbit identification number (n)
1st step to understanding an atom
Electrons exist in specific energy states, transition requires specific amount of energy
Each level has sub level, which also has one or more atomic orbitals
Principal energy levels
Designated as n= 1,2,3,...
: n=1, 2(1)
= 2, 2 electrons
____is a set of energy-equal atomic orbitals within a principal energy level.
Symbols in order
1st principal energy level (n=1) has 1 possible levels
2nd principal energy level (n=2) has 2 possible levels
: 2s and 2p
4th principal energy level (n=4) has 4 possible levels
: 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f
Electron fill the lowest-energy orbital available first
The arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals
Shorthand Electron configuration
Noble gas in bracket
: Tin (Sn)
5s24d105p2 as shorthand configuration for tin, since [Kr]1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6
Highlight valence electrons