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The characteristics of the matter
Matter classified by ____ and ____
State and composition classifies ____
3 states of matter?
Gaseous state, liquid state, and solid state are the 3 states of ____
- A recognizable difference in the appearance of a substance without causing any change in its composition or identity
- Ex-water: snow-rain-humidity
Observed or measured without changing the composition or identity of a substance
Result in change of composition and can be observed only through chemical reactions
- Chemical substance is converted to one or more different substance by rearranging, removing, replacing, or adding atoms.
- Ex: carbon dioxide + water -(light, chlorophyll)-> sugar + oxygen
- (Synonymous w/ chemical reaction)
- Ex: process of formation of sugar
Property of matter that is independent of the quantity of substance
Depends on the quantity of a substance
- Substance with only one component.
- Ex- Pure water:made only of particles containing 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom (H2O)
A pure substance that cannot be changed into a simpler form of matter by any chemical reaction
Substance resulting from the combination of 2 or more elements in a definite, reproducible way
- Combination of 2 or more pure substances in which each substance retains its own identity.
- Ex: alcohol and water can be combined in a mixture.
- They coexist as pure substances because they do not undergo a chemical reaction.
- Mixture may be homogeneous or heterogeneous.
- Mixture with uniform composition, its particles are well mixed, or thoroughly intermingled.
- Ex: Alcohol and water is described as a solution.
- Mixture with nonuniform composition.
- Ex: Salt and pepper
- Basic structural of an element, which is the smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.
- Made of proton, neutron, and electron.
Nucleus of atom
- Small, dense, positively charged region in the center of the atom.
- Composed of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons.
Positive charge, in atom's nucleus.
Uncharged, in atom's neucleus
- Negative charged, surrounding the nucleus.
- Low mass compared to protons and neutrons.
Atomic number (Z)
Equal to the number of protons in the atom
Mass number (A)
Equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons
Notations of atom?
- A- mass number: # of protons & neutrons
- Z- atomic number: # of protons
- X- place for atom name
- E- place for charge (+/-)
- Atoms of the same element having different masses because they contain different number of neutrons. (Have different mass numbers)
- Ex: carbon-12 (C-12), carbon-14 (C-14)
- The weighted average of the masses of each isotope that makes up the element.
- Measured in atomic mass unit (amu)
- 1 amu = 1.66 x10-24 grams (g)
Dalton's Atomic Theory
- All matter consists of tiny particles called atoms
- An atom cannot be created, divided, destroyed, or converted to any other type of atom.
- Atoms of a particular element have identical properties
- Atoms of different elements have different properties
- Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to produce compounds (stable combination of atoms)
- Chemical change involves joining, separating, or rearranging atoms
Electrically charged particles resulting from gain or loss of electrons by an atom
- Result of parent atom gaining one or more electrons
- Ex 8035Br-: Bromine-80 gains an electron
- Result when parent atom lose one or more electrons
- Ex: 3919K+: Potassium-39 loses an electron
- Energy level: Orbit level an electron is at, thus fix energy at fix level
- Only allowed location for electrons
- Concept of fix energy and fix levels
- Absorb energy: closer neutron move farther from nucleus
- Release energy: farther neutron move closer to nucleus
Orbit identification number (n)
- 1st step to understanding an atom
- Electrons exist in specific energy states, transition requires specific amount of energy
- Schroedinger's theory.
- Each level has sub level, which also has one or more atomic orbitals
Principal energy levels
- Designated as n= 1,2,3,...
- ex: n=1, 2(1)2= 2, 2 electrons
- ____is a set of energy-equal atomic orbitals within a principal energy level.
- Symbols in order: s<p<d<f
- 1st principal energy level (n=1) has 1 possible levels: 1s
- 2nd principal energy level (n=2) has 2 possible levels: 2s and 2p
- 4th principal energy level (n=4) has 4 possible levels: 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f
Electron fill the lowest-energy orbital available first
The arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals
Shorthand Electron configuration
- Noble gas in bracket: Tin (Sn)1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p2 krypton; [Kr]5s24d105p2 as shorthand configuration for tin, since [Kr]1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6
- Highlight valence electrons