Chapter 1- Human A&P

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SalgadoJE12
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281847
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Chapter 1- Human A&P
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2014-09-07 23:47:56
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Chapter1 HumanA
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  1. Organ Systems
    • 1. Integumentary 
    • 2. Skeletal 
    • 3. Muscular 
    • 4. Nevous
    • 5. Endocrine
    • 6. Cardiovascular
    • 7.Lymphatic
    • 8.Respiratory
    • 9. Digestive
    • 10.Urinary
    • 11. Male Reproductive 
    • 12. Female Reproductive
  2. Integumentary- Major Organs
    • Skin,
    • hair,
    • sweat glands,
    • nails
  3. Integumentary-Functions
    • a. protects against environmental hazards 
    • b. Helps regulate body temp.
    • c. Provides sensory info.
  4. Skeletal- Major organs
    • Bones,
    • cartilages,
    • associated ligaments,
    • bone marrow
  5. Skeletal- Functions
    • a. provides support and protection for other tissues 
    • b. stores calcium and other minerals 
    • c. forms blood cells
  6. Muscular- Major Organs
    • Skeletal muscles and
    • associated tendons
  7. Muscular- Functions
    • a. Provides movement 
    • b. provides protection and support for other tissue 
    • c. generates heat that maintains body temp.
  8. nervous- Major organs
    • brain,
    • spinal cord,
    • peripheral nerves,
    • sense organs
  9. nervous- Function
    • a. Directs immediate responses to stimuli 
    • b. Coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems
    • c. provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions
  10. endocrine- Major organs
    • pituitary gland,
    • thyroid gland,
    • pancreas,
    • adrenal glands,
    • gonads,
    • endocrine tissues in other systems
  11. Endocrine- Functions
    • a. directs long term changes in the activities of other organ systems
    • b. adjust metabolic activity and energy use by the body 
    • c. control many structural and functional changes during development
  12. Cardiovascular- Major Organs
    • Heart,
    • blood and
    • blood vessels
  13. Cardiovascular-  functions
    • Distributes blood cells, water and dissolves materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • B. Distributes heat and assist in control of body temperature
  14. Lymphatic- Major Organs
    • Spleen,
    • thymus,
    • lymphatic vessels,
    • lymph nodes and
    • tonsils
  15. Lymphatic - Functions
    • a. Defends against infection and disease
    • b. returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream
  16. respiratory-  Major Organs
    • nasal cavities,
    • sinuses,
    • larynx,
    • trachea,
    • bronchi,
    • lungs and
    • alveoli
  17. Respiratory Functions
    • a. Delivers oxygen to the Alveoli (sites in lungs where the gas exchange occurs)
    • b. provides oxygen to the bloodstream
    • c. removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream 
    • d. produces sounds for communication
  18. Digestive- Major Organs
    • Teeth,
    • tongue,
    • pharynx,
    • esophagus,
    • stomach,
    • small intestine,
    • large intestine,
    • liver,
    • gallbladder, and
    • pancreas
  19. Digestive Functions
    • a. digest and process food
    • b.absorbs and conserves water 
    • c. absorbs nutrients 
    • d. stores energy reserves
  20. Six levels of structural organization.
    • 1. Chemical level 
    • 2. Cellular Level
    • 3.Tissue Level
    • 4. Organ 
    • 5. Organ System 
    • 6. Organismal
  21. Chemical level
    Molecules and atoms
  22. Cellular level
    • smallest unit consider to be alive 
    • - Molecules form organelles
  23. Tissue Level
    groups of cells that have a common functions
  24. Epithelium
    covers body surfaces and lines the cavities
  25. Muscle
    provide movement (body, organ, tissue level)
  26. Connective
    supports and protects body organs
  27. Nervous
    rapid internal communication by electrical impulses
  28. Organ
    discrete structure made of at least two tissue types
  29. Organ system
    organs that work closely together to accomplish a common purpose
  30. Organism
    sum of total all structural levels working together to promote health and life
  31. Urinary- major organs
    • Kidneys
    • Ureters 
    • Urinary Bladder
    • Urethra
  32. Urinary- Functions
    • Excretes waste products from the blood
    • Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced 
    • Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination 
    • Regulates blood ion concentrations and ph
  33. Male reproductive Organs
    • Testes
    • Epididymides
    • Ductus deferentia 
    • Seminal vesicles 
    • Prostate gland 
    • penis 
    • scrotum
  34. Male Reproductive Function
    • Produces male sex cells (sperm), suspending fluids, and hormones 
    • Sexual intercourse
  35. Female reproductive organs
    • Ovaries
    • Uterine tubes 
    • Uterus
    • Vagina 
    • Labia 
    • Clitoris 
    • Mammary glands
  36. Female reproductive functions
    • Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones 
    • Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery 
    • Provides milk to nourish new born
    • Sexual intercourse
  37. Homeostasis
    dynamic state of equilibrium (balance) in which internal organs vary w/in a narrow range (limits)
  38. Homestatic imbalance
    loss of ability to maintain state of equilibrium within a narrow range
  39. Disease
    state of homestatic imbalance for one or more variables with in the body
  40. Control system
    • Variable 
    • Receptor 
    • Control system
    • effector
  41. set point
    desire value in homestasis
  42. physiologic range
  43. physiologic stress
    any force that tends to have a homestatic variable away from set point
  44. physiologic reverse
    capacity to resist physiologic stress
  45. Negative feedback
    anything that will bring back physiologic stress (arrow up ---> arrow down)
  46. Positive feedback
    arrow up---> arrow up till something stops it.
  47. physiologic reserve
    capacity to resist p.s

    How do we raise?
  48. Physiologic demand
    what is the body demanding

    How do we lower?
  49. Auto regulation (intrinsic)
    Occurs when organ, cell, tissue, system adjust automatically to change
  50. Extrinsic regulation
    nervous or endocrine system control or adjust other system simultaneously
  51. Anatomy
    structures of body parts and their relationships
  52. Gross anatomy (macroscopic)
    body structures visible to the naked eye
  53. Regional anatomy
    all structures within one region
  54. systemic anatomy
    all structures within one system
  55. surface anatomy
    internal body structures as they relate to overlaying skin surface
  56. Microscopic anatomy
    structures to small to be seen by naked eye
  57. cytology
    study of body cells
  58. histology
    study of body tissues
  59. developmental anatomy
    traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout life span
  60. embryology
    study of the developmental changes that occur before birth
  61. pathological anatomy
    structural changes caused by disease
  62. radiographic anatomy
    internal structures as visualized by x-rays or specialized scanning procedures
  63. Molecular biology
    study the structure of biological molecules (chemical substances)
  64. Physiology
    studies the function of body's structure machinery
  65. Thyroid Homestatisis
    sets metabolic rate 

    • a Hyperthyroid 
    • b. Hypothyroid
  66. Hyperthyroid
    Increased metabolic activity
  67. Hypothyroid
    decreased metabolic activity

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