Swine Production Quiz 1

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lacamp11
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281848
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Swine Production Quiz 1
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2014-09-15 21:22:32
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History Breeds Segments systems
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Quiz 1: Introduction & history of swine, breeds, segments and systems
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  1. Gilt
    young female
  2. shoat
    young male
  3. barrow
    castrated male
  4. Drove (herd)
    group of pigs
  5. First recorded existence of swine?
    40 million years ago
  6. When were swine domesticated by the Chinese?
    4900 B.C
  7. At about what time were swine being raised in Europe?
    1500 B.C
  8. What is significant about Christopher Columbus in swine history?
    He brought 8 to Cuba in 1493
  9. Who is known as the "Father" of the American pork industry? Why?
    • Hernando de Soto
    • Brought 13 pigs to FL in 1539.
  10. Who introduced pigs to New Mexico in 1600?
    Hernando Cortez
  11. Who brought 6 Sows to Jamestown in 1607?
    Sir Walter Raleigh
  12. 1st commercial pork packer
    William Pynchon- Springfield, MA
  13. Who established the first packing house east of the Cumberland Gap? When? Where?
    • Elisha Mills
    • 1818
    • Cincinnati, OH
    • Became "porkopolis" center of pork processing
  14. Who developed the 1st packing plant in Chicago? When? What did this change about the pork processing industry?
    • Archibald Clybourne
    • 1827
    • Chicago passed Cincinnati by 1861, became the center of processing due to easier transport by the Great Lakes.
  15. What allowed the industry to expand westward?
    • Erie Canal
    • Railroad system- refridgerated railcars
  16. Where were the first "terminal markets" developed?
    • Chicago
    • Kansas City
    • Sioux City (Iowa)
  17. Where did the pork industry relocate to after westward expansion?
    Upper midwest
  18. Immunization against hog cholera started in what year?
    1906
  19. When and where was the first sanitation program to prevent parasites occur?
    1919 in IL
  20. Technology has allowed for non traditional states to flourish in the swine industry. An example of this is _____ ________ being the 2nd largest swine state.
    NC
  21. What is the economy of scale?
    larger operations can buy materials in bulk and buy them cheaper.
  22. T/F: The U.S is a leading pork exporter.
    TRUE
  23. What are the top 5 swine producing states?
    • 1.) Iowa
    • 2.) North Carolina
    • 3.) Minnesota
    • 4.) Illinois
    • 5.) Indiana
  24. Genetic variation within breeds indicates..
    breeds are not genetically pure
  25. Why is genetic variation important
    Genetic variation is essential in order to make progress by selection
  26. Maternal Breeds:
    Characteristics?
    Examples?
    • White
    • Large litters
    • Heavy Milkers
    • Generally more fat and lighter muscled
    • Chester White, Landrace, Yorkshire
    • Chester White: small, floppy ears
    • Chester County, PA
    • Least common
    • Fattest and lightest muscled
    • Landrace: big, floppy ears
    • Denmark
    • long sided
    • extremely large litters
    • excellent milk production
    • moderate muscle and leanness
    • Yorkshire: erect ears
    • England
    • "Universal Breed"
    • Big framed, fast growing, large litters, heavy milking
    • Heavy muscled, lean
  27. Intermediate breeds:
    Characteristics?
    Examples?
    • specialized breeds
    • moderate, smaller framed
    • Berkshire, Poland China, Spotted
    • Berkshire: black w/ white points, erect ears
    • England
    • Excellent carcass quality, lighter muscled
    • Heavy boned, feed efficient
    • Poland China: black w/ white points, floppy ears
    • Ohio
    • Fast growing, large litters, hardy
    • Light muscled
    • Spotted: black/white spotted, floppy ears
    • Indiana
    • Most popular
    • Hardy, fast growing, feed efficient
    • Sows are underrated
  28. Terminal Breeds:
    Characteristics?
    Examples?
    • Heaviest muscled
    • Leaner
    • Faster growing
    • Poor mommas- small litters, don't milk as well
    • Duroc, Hampshire, Pietrain
    • Duroc: red, floppy ears
    • NY/NJ
    • Very fast growing, excellent carcass
    • Big framed, heavy muscled and boned
    • Fattest of terminal breeds
    • Hampshire: black, white belt, erect ears
    • England
    • Heavy muscled
    • Stylish
    • Poor structure and maternal ability
    • Smithfield Hams
    • Pietrain: black/white spotted, erect ears
    • Belgium
    • Popular in 1950-1951
    • Medium framed, finer boned, less maternal
    • Leanest, Heaviest muscled
    • "Stress" gene
    • Hereford: bacon type breed
    • duroc X chester white cross
    • duroc X Poland china cross
    • Hereford Hog: bacon type breed
    • 2/3 white face, 2/3 red body
    • must have at least three white legs, at least one inch high and go all around the leg
    • decent grazers, feeders
    • fatten easily
    • decent mommas
    • Tamworth: bacon type breed
    • Ireland
    • Leggy, narrow
    • Modern Tamworth more arch to their back, deeper sided, lighter muscled
    • Excellent for pasture situation
    • Excellent carcass
    • Good mommas
  29. List the 5 basic production systems
    • Farrow-to-finish
    • Farrow-to-nursery
    • Farrow-to-wean
    • Wean-to-finish
    • Finishing
  30. In farrow-to-finish operations, the producer handles breeding all the way through finishing at around ___#
    270#
  31. Farrow-to-nursery ops are also known as
    farrow-to-feeder
  32. What do farrow-to-nursery ops involve?
    Breeding sows through selling 40-60# feeder pigs
  33. What production system is in place at MSU?
    Farrow-to-nursery
  34. What do the feeder-to-wean ops involve?
    • Breeding sows through weaning (21 days)
    • 10-15# piglets
  35. What do wean-to-finish ops involve?
    Buying 10-15# weaned pigs and feeding until finished
  36. What do the finishing ops involve?
    • purchasing feeder pigs (40-60#) and feeding until finished.
    • aka "contract finishing"
  37. List the 5 biological production systems
    • Breeding
    • Gestation
    • Farrowing
    • Weaning
    • Feeder/ replacement
  38. Pros/Cons of controlled environment systems for breeding: hand mating
    • more labor
    • accurate
  39. What are the controlled breeding systems?
    • Hand mating
    • AI
  40. Pros/cons of controlled environment systems for breeding: AI
    • high management/ expertise and labor
    • accurate
  41. What are some unique traits of swine?
    • Specialized sense of smell
    • Squeal 110-115 decibels
    • Lack of sweat glands
    • Powerful
    • Very Neat
    • Omnivores
  42. 5 Parts of the pig that can be used for medical purposes
    • Blood
    • Brain
    • Gall bladder
    • Heart
    • Intestines
  43. 5 parts of the pig that can be used for industrial purposes
    • Blood
    • Brains
    • Bones and skin
    • Hair
    • Meat scraps
  44. Top 10 swine states
    • Iowa
    • North Carolina
    • Minnesota
    • Illinois
    • Indiana
    • Nebraska
    • Missouri
    • Oklahoma
    • Ohio
    • Idaho
  45. What is a breed?
    • Animals that, through selection
    • and breeding, have come to resemble one another and pass those traits uniformly
    • to their offspring.
  46. What percent of market hogs are crossbreds?
    More than 95%
  47. What breed is used for "kurobuta?"
    Berkshire
  48. Which breed is known as "the mark of a meat hog?"
    Hampshire
  49. Which breed is associated with the halothane gene?
    Pietrain
  50. What is different about poland china hogs and spotted hogs?
    • Poland china: black w/ 6 white points
    • Spotted: spots
  51. "America's sowherd"
    Landrace
  52. What production system contains the largest percentage of operations and inventory?
    Finishing
  53. What are the factors used to determine the right hut type for and an outdoor farrowing system?
    • ease of use by sow
    • ease of access by herd worker
    • protection from weather
    • ability to protect piglets from being crushed
  54. How is weaning different in a controlled vs outdoor system?
    • controlled: 2-4 weeks, 10-15#
    • outdoor: 5-8 weeks, 15-30#
  55. 5 building types for growing and finishing
    • Totally enclosed
    • Open front with apron
    • Modified open front
    • Double-curtain building
    • Hoop building
  56. Disadvantages of open faced with apron building
    • pigs exposed to temp
    • less comfort and performance
  57. Characteristics of a good system
    • repeatable methods
    • specialization
  58. What is the key to good swine care
    housing management
  59. 4 methods of heat exchange
    • Conduction- physical contact w/another service
    • Convection- physical contact w/ air or water
    • Radiation
    • Evaporation- water conversion to vapor
  60. Heat & cold stress behavior and corrective action
    • Heat stress: heavy breathing, panting, suppressed appetite. Increase heat exchange (water, air)
    • Cold stress: huddling, shivering. Turn heat up, check air flow
  61. 4 measurements to asses thermal environment?
    • Air temp
    • Air flow speed
    • Surrounding surface temps
    • Water vapor content of air
  62. 4 critical design factors of farrowing unit facilities
    • Comfort- temp
    • Protection- reduction of piglets crushed
    • Sanitation
    • Management- grouped together
  63. 7 general decisions involved in farrowing unit facilities
    • Crates vs pens
    • Floor type
    • Farrowing arrangement
    • Manure management
    • Crate level
    • Construction decisions
    • Bird & rodent control

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