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group of pigs
First recorded existence of swine?
40 million years ago
When were swine domesticated by the Chinese?
At about what time were swine being raised in Europe?
What is significant about Christopher Columbus in swine history?
He brought 8 to Cuba in 1493
Who is known as the "Father" of the American pork industry? Why?
- Hernando de Soto
- Brought 13 pigs to FL in 1539.
Who introduced pigs to New Mexico in 1600?
Who brought 6 Sows to Jamestown in 1607?
Sir Walter Raleigh
1st commercial pork packer
William Pynchon- Springfield, MA
Who established the first packing house east of the Cumberland Gap? When? Where?
- Elisha Mills
- Cincinnati, OH
- Became "porkopolis" center of pork processing
Who developed the 1st packing plant in Chicago? When? What did this change about the pork processing industry?
- Archibald Clybourne
- Chicago passed Cincinnati by 1861, became the center of processing due to easier transport by the Great Lakes.
What allowed the industry to expand westward?
- Erie Canal
- Railroad system- refridgerated railcars
Where were the first "terminal markets" developed?
- Kansas City
- Sioux City (Iowa)
Where did the pork industry relocate to after westward expansion?
Immunization against hog cholera started in what year?
When and where was the first sanitation program to prevent parasites occur?
1919 in IL
Technology has allowed for non traditional states to flourish in the swine industry. An example of this is _____ ________ being the 2nd largest swine state.
What is the economy of scale?
larger operations can buy materials in bulk and buy them cheaper.
T/F: The U.S is a leading pork exporter.
What are the top 5 swine producing states?
- 1.) Iowa
- 2.) North Carolina
- 3.) Minnesota
- 4.) Illinois
- 5.) Indiana
Genetic variation within breeds indicates..
breeds are not genetically pure
Why is genetic variation important
Genetic variation is essential in order to make progress by selection
- Large litters
- Heavy Milkers
- Generally more fat and lighter muscled
- Chester White, Landrace, Yorkshire
- Chester White: small, floppy ears
- Chester County, PA
- Least common
- Fattest and lightest muscled
- Landrace: big, floppy ears
- long sided
- extremely large litters
- excellent milk production
- moderate muscle and leanness
- Yorkshire: erect ears
- "Universal Breed"
- Big framed, fast growing, large litters, heavy milking
- Heavy muscled, lean
- specialized breeds
- moderate, smaller framed
- Berkshire, Poland China, Spotted
- Berkshire: black w/ white points, erect ears
- Excellent carcass quality, lighter muscled
- Heavy boned, feed efficient
- Poland China: black w/ white points, floppy ears
- Fast growing, large litters, hardy
- Light muscled
- Spotted: black/white spotted, floppy ears
- Most popular
- Hardy, fast growing, feed efficient
- Sows are underrated
- Heaviest muscled
- Faster growing
- Poor mommas- small litters, don't milk as well
- Duroc, Hampshire, Pietrain
- Duroc: red, floppy ears
- Very fast growing, excellent carcass
- Big framed, heavy muscled and boned
- Fattest of terminal breeds
- Hampshire: black, white belt, erect ears
- Heavy muscled
- Poor structure and maternal ability
- Smithfield Hams
- Pietrain: black/white spotted, erect ears
- Popular in 1950-1951
- Medium framed, finer boned, less maternal
- Leanest, Heaviest muscled
- "Stress" gene
- Hereford: bacon type breed
- duroc X chester white cross
- duroc X Poland china cross
- Hereford Hog: bacon type breed
- 2/3 white face, 2/3 red body
- must have at least three white legs, at least one inch high and go all around the leg
- decent grazers, feeders
- fatten easily
- decent mommas
- Tamworth: bacon type breed
- Leggy, narrow
- Modern Tamworth more arch to their back, deeper sided, lighter muscled
- Excellent for pasture situation
- Excellent carcass
- Good mommas
List the 5 basic production systems
In farrow-to-finish operations, the producer handles breeding all the way through finishing at around ___#
Farrow-to-nursery ops are also known as
What do farrow-to-nursery ops involve?
Breeding sows through selling 40-60# feeder pigs
What production system is in place at MSU?
What do the feeder-to-wean ops involve?
- Breeding sows through weaning (21 days)
- 10-15# piglets
What do wean-to-finish ops involve?
Buying 10-15# weaned pigs and feeding until finished
What do the finishing ops involve?
- purchasing feeder pigs (40-60#) and feeding until finished.
- aka "contract finishing"
List the 5 biological production systems
- Feeder/ replacement
Pros/Cons of controlled environment systems for breeding: hand mating
What are the controlled breeding systems?
Pros/cons of controlled environment systems for breeding: AI
- high management/ expertise and labor
What are some unique traits of swine?
- Specialized sense of smell
- Squeal 110-115 decibels
- Lack of sweat glands
- Very Neat
5 Parts of the pig that can be used for medical purposes
- Gall bladder
5 parts of the pig that can be used for industrial purposes
- Bones and skin
- Meat scraps
Top 10 swine states
- North Carolina
What is a breed?
- Animals that, through selection
- and breeding, have come to resemble one another and pass those traits uniformly
- to their offspring.
What percent of market hogs are crossbreds?
More than 95%
What breed is used for "kurobuta?"
Which breed is known as "the mark of a meat hog?"
Which breed is associated with the halothane gene?
What is different about poland china hogs and spotted hogs?
- Poland china: black w/ 6 white points
- Spotted: spots
What production system contains the largest percentage of operations and inventory?
What are the factors used to determine the right hut type for and an outdoor farrowing system?
- ease of use by sow
- ease of access by herd worker
- protection from weather
- ability to protect piglets from being crushed
How is weaning different in a controlled vs outdoor system?
- controlled: 2-4 weeks, 10-15#
- outdoor: 5-8 weeks, 15-30#
5 building types for growing and finishing
- Totally enclosed
- Open front with apron
- Modified open front
- Double-curtain building
- Hoop building
Disadvantages of open faced with apron building
- pigs exposed to temp
- less comfort and performance
Characteristics of a good system
- repeatable methods
What is the key to good swine care
4 methods of heat exchange
- Conduction- physical contact w/another service
- Convection- physical contact w/ air or water
- Evaporation- water conversion to vapor
Heat & cold stress behavior and corrective action
- Heat stress: heavy breathing, panting, suppressed appetite. Increase heat exchange (water, air)
- Cold stress: huddling, shivering. Turn heat up, check air flow
4 measurements to asses thermal environment?
- Air temp
- Air flow speed
- Surrounding surface temps
- Water vapor content of air
4 critical design factors of farrowing unit facilities
- Comfort- temp
- Protection- reduction of piglets crushed
- Management- grouped together
7 general decisions involved in farrowing unit facilities
- Crates vs pens
- Floor type
- Farrowing arrangement
- Manure management
- Crate level
- Construction decisions
- Bird & rodent control