Swine Production Quiz 1
Card Set Information
Swine Production Quiz 1
History Breeds Segments systems
Quiz 1: Introduction & history of swine, breeds, segments and systems
group of pigs
First recorded existence of swine?
40 million years ago
When were swine domesticated by the Chinese?
At about what time were swine being raised in Europe?
What is significant about Christopher Columbus in swine history?
He brought 8 to Cuba in 1493
Who is known as the "Father" of the American pork industry? Why?
Hernando de Soto
Brought 13 pigs to FL in 1539.
Who introduced pigs to New Mexico in 1600?
Who brought 6 Sows to Jamestown in 1607?
Sir Walter Raleigh
1st commercial pork packer
William Pynchon- Springfield, MA
Who established the first packing house east of the Cumberland Gap? When? Where?
Became "porkopolis" center of pork processing
Who developed the 1st packing plant in Chicago? When? What did this change about the pork processing industry?
Chicago passed Cincinnati by 1861, became the center of processing due to easier transport by the Great Lakes.
What allowed the industry to expand westward?
Railroad system- refridgerated railcars
Where were the first "terminal markets" developed?
Sioux City (Iowa)
Where did the pork industry relocate to after westward expansion?
Immunization against hog cholera started in what year?
When and where was the first sanitation program to prevent parasites occur?
1919 in IL
Technology has allowed for non traditional states to flourish in the swine industry. An example of this is _____ ________ being the 2nd largest swine state.
What is the economy of scale?
larger operations can buy materials in bulk and buy them cheaper.
T/F: The U.S is a leading pork exporter.
What are the top 5 swine producing states?
2.) North Carolina
Genetic variation within breeds indicates..
breeds are not genetically pure
Why is genetic variation important
Genetic variation is essential in order to make progress by selection
Generally more fat and lighter muscled
Chester White, Landrace, Yorkshire
: small, floppy ears
Chester County, PA
Fattest and lightest muscled
: big, floppy ears
extremely large litters
excellent milk production
moderate muscle and leanness
: erect ears
Big framed, fast growing, large litters, heavy milking
Heavy muscled, lean
moderate, smaller framed
Berkshire, Poland China, Spotted
: black w/ white points, erect ears
Excellent carcass quality, lighter muscled
Heavy boned, feed efficient
: black w/ white points, floppy ears
Fast growing, large litters, hardy
: black/white spotted, floppy ears
Hardy, fast growing, feed efficient
Sows are underrated
Poor mommas- small litters, don't milk as well
Duroc, Hampshire, Pietrain
: red, floppy ears
Very fast growing, excellent carcass
Big framed, heavy muscled and boned
Fattest of terminal breeds
: black, white belt, erect ears
Poor structure and maternal ability
: black/white spotted, erect ears
Popular in 1950-1951
Medium framed, finer boned, less maternal
Leanest, Heaviest muscled
: bacon type breed
duroc X chester white cross
duroc X Poland china cross
: bacon type breed
2/3 white face, 2/3 red body
must have at least three white legs, at least one inch high and go all around the leg
decent grazers, feeders
: bacon type breed
Modern Tamworth more arch to their back, deeper sided, lighter muscled
Excellent for pasture situation
List the 5 basic production systems
In farrow-to-finish operations, the producer handles breeding all the way through finishing at around ___#
Farrow-to-nursery ops are also known as
What do farrow-to-nursery ops involve?
Breeding sows through selling 40-60# feeder pigs
What production system is in place at MSU?
What do the feeder-to-wean ops involve?
Breeding sows through weaning (21 days)
What do wean-to-finish ops involve?
Buying 10-15# weaned pigs and feeding until finished
What do the finishing ops involve?
purchasing feeder pigs (40-60#) and feeding until finished.
aka "contract finishing"
List the 5 biological production systems
Pros/Cons of controlled environment systems for breeding: hand mating
What are the controlled breeding systems?
Pros/cons of controlled environment systems for breeding: AI
high management/ expertise and labor
What are some unique traits of swine?
Specialized sense of smell
Squeal 110-115 decibels
Lack of sweat glands
5 Parts of the pig that can be used for medical purposes
5 parts of the pig that can be used for industrial purposes
Bones and skin
Top 10 swine states
What is a breed?
Animals that, through selection
and breeding, have come to resemble one another and pass those traits uniformly
to their offspring.
What percent of market hogs are crossbreds?
More than 95%
What breed is used for "kurobuta?"
Which breed is known as "the mark of a meat hog?"
Which breed is associated with the halothane gene?
What is different about poland china hogs and spotted hogs?
: black w/ 6 white points
What production system contains the largest percentage of operations and inventory?
What are the factors used to determine the right hut type for and an outdoor farrowing system?
ease of use by sow
ease of access by herd worker
protection from weather
ability to protect piglets from being crushed
How is weaning different in a controlled vs outdoor system?
: 2-4 weeks, 10-15#
: 5-8 weeks, 15-30#
5 building types for growing and finishing
Open front with apron
Modified open front
Disadvantages of open faced with apron building
pigs exposed to temp
less comfort and performance
Characteristics of a good system
What is the key to good swine care
4 methods of heat exchange
Conduction- physical contact w/another service
Convection- physical contact w/ air or water
Evaporation- water conversion to vapor
Heat & cold stress behavior and corrective action
: heavy breathing, panting, suppressed appetite. Increase heat exchange (water, air)
: huddling, shivering. Turn heat up, check air flow
4 measurements to asses thermal environment?
Air flow speed
Surrounding surface temps
Water vapor content of air
4 critical design factors of farrowing unit facilities
Protection- reduction of piglets crushed
Management- grouped together
7 general decisions involved in farrowing unit facilities
Crates vs pens
Bird & rodent control