Orientation to the Human Body

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  1. How many bodies currently reside on earth?
    7 billion
  2. While each individual is unique, we all have the _____ basic design and structure.
  3. Structure of the body
  4. Function of the body
  5. The study of the processes that disturb normal function is....
  6. Patho means....
    suffering or disease
  7. The lungs consist of a series of tubes called bronchi, the smallest of these bronchi end in tiny sacs, called alveoli.  This is an example of....
  8. Oxygen is absorbed into the blood stream through the alveoli.  That's how the lung functions.  This is an example of....
  9. Bronchi become narrowed (such as during an acute asthmatic attack) or blocked (such as from a tumor) and results in shortness of breath.  This is an example of....
  10. Most extreme example of anatomical variation.
    -inherited condition affecting about 1 in 10,000 people. The organs are reversed.
    -instead of the spleen, pancreas, sigmoid colon, and most of the heart being on the left, they're on the right.
    -likewise, the gallbladder, appendix and most of the liver are on the left instead of the right.
    situs inversus
  11. Who made the first recorded attempt to study anatomy in 380 B.C.?
    Aristotle of Greece
  12. When was the first Atlas of Anatomy published?
    1543 A.D.
  13. How is the human body organized?
  14. How many levels are in the hierarchy of the human body?
  15. Level 1 of the hierarchy of the human body
  16. Protons +
    electrons -
    neutrons are....
  17. Level 2 of the hierarchy of the human body
  18. Atoms link together to form
  19. A collection of atoms are....
  20. Level 3 in the hierarchy of the human body
  21. Metabolic units within a cell that perform a specific function necessary to the life of a cell.  Examples include mitochondria - the powerhouses that furnish the cells energy - and the cell's nucleus
  22. What is a collection of molecules?
  23. Level 4 in the hierarchy of the human body
  24. What is the first level of a living organism?
    a cell
  25. What is the smallest living unit that make up the body's structure?
  26. Level 5 in the hierarchy of the human body
  27. Cells group together to form
  28. Specialized groups of cells with similar structure and function
    • tissues
    • (epithelial)
    • (connective)
    • (muscle)
    • (nerve)
  29. Level 6 in the hierarchy of the human body
  30. Tissues come together to form
  31. Structures of two or more tissue types working together to carry out a particular function
  32. Examples of organs include
    • heart
    • stomach
    • kidney
  33. Level 7 in the hierarchy of the human body
    organ system
  34. Organs form....
    the organ system
  35. Groups of organs that all contribute to a particular function
    organ systems
  36. Level 8 of the hierarchy of the human body
  37. All of the organ systems together form....
    an organism
  38. What is one complete individual?
    a human organism
  39. Hierarchy of the human body
    • Atoms
    • Molecules
    • Organelles
    • Cells
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ System
    • Organism
  40. Four tissue types
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nerve
  41. Covers or lines body surfaces
    epithelial tissue
  42. Examples of epithelial tissue
    • outer layer of the skin
    • the walls of capillaries
    • kidney tubules
  43. Connects and supports parts of the body; some transport and store materials
    connective tissue
  44. Examples of connective tissue
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • adipose tissue
  45. Contracts to produce movement
    muscle tissue
  46. Examples of muscle tissue
    • skeletal muscles
    • heart
  47. Generates and transmits impulses to regulate body function
    nerve tissue
  48. Examples of nerve tissue
    • brain
    • nerves
  49. The human body consists of how many organ systems?
  50. The organs of each system contribute to a....
    particular function
  51. Examples of some organs that belong to more than one system....
    • pharynx - part of respiratory and digestive system
    • male urethra - belongs to reproductive and urinary systems
  52. Consists of:  skin, hair and nails
    Key functions:  protection, temperature regulation, water retention, sensation
    integumentary system
  53. Consists of:  bones, cartilage and ligaments
    Key functions:  protection of body organs, support, movement, blood formation
    skeletal system
  54. Consists primarily of skeletal muscles
    Key functions:  movement, posture, heat production
    muscular system
  55. Consists of: lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, lymph, thymus, spleen, and tonsils
    Key functions:  role in fluid balance, production of immune cells, defense against disease
    lymphatic system
  56. Consists of:  nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs
    Key functions:  absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, gas exchange, acid-base balance, speech
    respiratory system
  57. Consists of:  kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
    Key functions:  excretion of wastes, regulation of blood volume and pressure, control of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance
    urinary system
  58. Consists of:  brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs
    Key functions:  control, regulation and coordination of other systems, sensation, memory
    nervous system
  59. Consists of:  pituitary gland, adrenals, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroids and other organs
    Key functions:  hormone production, control and regulation of other systems
    endocrine system
  60. Consists of:  heart, arteries, veins and capillaries
    Key functions:  distribution of oxygen, nutrients, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, immune cells and antibodies; fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
    circulatory system
  61. Consists of:  stomach, small and large intestines, esophagus, liver, mouth and pancreas
    Key functions:  breakdown and absorption of nutrients, elimination of wastes
    digestive system
  62. Consists of:  (males) testes, vas deferens, prostate, seminal vesicles and penis
    (females) ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina and breasts
    Key functions:  (males) production and delivery of sperm, secretion of sex hormones
    (females) production of eggs, site of fertilization and fetal development, birth, lactation, secretion of sex hormones
    reproductive system
  63. Standing erect, arms at the sides, with face, palms and feet facing forward
    anatomical position
  64. The terms right and left refer to whose side
    the patient
  65. Generally grouped in pairs of opposites
    directional terms
  66. Toward the body's midline
  67. Away from the body's midline
  68. Farthest from the point of origin
  69. Closest to the point of origin
  70. Above
  71. Below
  72. Toward the front of the body
    Anterior (ventral)
  73. Toward the back of the body
    posterior (dorsal)
  74. At or near the body's surface
  75. Away from the body's surface
  76. Body planes __________ the body, or an organ, into __________.
    • divide
    • sections
  77. Divides the body lengthwise into right and left sides
    -called a midsagittal plane if the section is made exactly at midline
    -often used in illustrations to reveal the organs in the head or pelvic cavity
    sagittal plane

    Image Upload 1
  78. Divides the body horizontally into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions
    -also called a horizontal plane
    -used by CT scanners to reveal internal organs
    • transverse plane
    • Image Upload 2
  79. Divides the body lengthwise into anterior and posterior portions
    -also called coronal plane
    -often used in illustrations to show the contents of the abdominal and thoracic cavities
    • frontal plane
    • Image Upload 3
  80. The frontal plane is also called a __________ plane because the line if the plane crosses the top, or crown of the head.
  81. The word coronal comes from the Latin word meaning __________.
  82. Body region terms are used extensively when performing clinical __________ and medical __________.
    • examinations
    • procedures
  83. Body regions
    • anterior
    • Image Upload 4
  84. Body regions
    • posterior
    • Image Upload 5
  85. The body contains __________ - called cavities - that house the internal organs.
  86. The two major body cavities are
    • the dorsal cavity
    • ventral cavity
  87. Body cavities are separated into two cavities separated by the diaphragm
    • thoracic cavity
    • abdominopelvic cavity
  88. The thoracic cavity houses the __________ and __________ __________.
    • mediastinum
    • pleural cavity
  89. The abdominopelvic cavity houses the __________ __________ and the __________ __________.
    • abdominal cavity
    • pelvic cavity
  90. Body cavities
    Image Upload 6
  91. Located at the front of the body
    -consists of two compartments (the thoracic and abdominopelvic), which are separated by the diaphragm
    ventral cavity
  92. Surrounded by ribs and chest muscles
    -subdivided into two pleural cavities (each containing a lung) and the mediastinum
    -the mediastinum contains the heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lymph nodes and other blood vessels and nerves
    thoracic cavity
  93. Subdivided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
    -the abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
    -the pelvic cavity contains the bladder, some of the reproductive organs and the rectum
    abdominopelvic cavity
  94. Located at the back of the body
    -contains two divisions but is one continuous cavity
    -cranial and spinal cavity
    dorsal cavity
  95. Formed by the skull
    -contains the brain
    cranial cavity
  96. Formed by the vertebrae
    -contains the spinal cord
    spinal cavity
  97. Because the abdominopelvic cavity is so large, and because it contains numerous organs, it's divided further into:
    - __________ (which are used to locate organs in anatomical studies) as well as
    - __________(which are used to pinpoint the site of abdominal pain)
    • regions
    • quadrants
  98. How many abdominal regions are there?
  99. Abdominal regions
    Image Upload 7
  100. Abdominal regions
    Image Upload 8
  101. Right hypochondriac region
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • right kidney
  102. Right Lumbar region
    • liver (tip)
    • small intestine
    • ascending colon
    • right kidney
  103. right iliac region
    • small intestines
    • appendix
    • cecum and ascending colon
  104. epigastric region
    • stomach
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • right and left kidneys
  105. umbilical region
    • stomach
    • pancreas
    • small intestines
    • transverse colon
  106. Left hypochondriac region
    • stomach
    • liver (tip)
    • left kidney
    • spleen
  107. Left lumbar region
    • small intestines
    • descending colon
    • left kidney
  108. Left iliac region
    • small intestines
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
  109. How many abdominal quadrants are there?
  110. Abdominal quadrants
    Image Upload 9
  111. Maintaining a dynamic equilibrium
  112. Every organ system is involved in helping the body maintain __________.
  113. Homeostatic regulation involves:
    - a __________ (which receives information about a change in the environment)
    - a __________ (which receives and processes information from the receptor), and
    - an __________ (which responds to signals from the control center by either opposing or enhancing the stimulus)
    • receptor
    • control center
    • effector
  114. The signal sent by the effector is called feedback; feedback can be either _________ or __________.
    • negative
    • positive
  115. When the effector opposes the stimulus (such as a dropping temperature) and reverses the direction of change (causing the temperature to rise)
    negative feedback (more common)
  116. When the effector reinforces the stimulus (such as uterine contractions during childbirth, which trigger the release of the hormone oxytocin) and amplifies the direction of change (causing even greater contractions and further release of oxytocin)
    positive feedback
  117. Most systems supporting homeostasis operate by __________ feedback.
  118. Because positive feedback is __________, there are only a few situations in which it is beneficial to the body (such as during childbirth or in blood clotting)
  119. More often, positive feedback is __________ (such as when a high fever continues to rise)
Card Set
Orientation to the Human Body
A&P refresher
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