Abeka World Geography Chapter 1 Review

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ToriG
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Abeka World Geography Chapter 1 Review
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2014-09-02 12:50:49
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Chapter 1 review
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  1. The study of the earth
    geography
  2. The shape and elevation of the land
    topography
  3. Imaginary lines that run east and west around the globe and measure distances north or south of the equator
    parallels of latitude
  4. Imaginary lines that run north and south around the globe, come together at the poles, and measure distances east and west of the equator
    meridians
  5. Half of spheres, as in the Northern, Southern, Eastern, or Western
    hemisphere
  6. 0 degree longitude; the starting point for measuring longitude that runs through Greenwich, England, and is used for designating time
    prime meridian
  7. corresponds closely to 180 degree longitude; the imaginary line, lying opposite the prime meridian, that zig-zags through the Pacific Ocean and is used for designating time.
    international date line
  8. Points where parallels and meridians intersect
    coordinates
  9. The process which moves moisture from the oceans to the land and back to the oceans
    hydrologic cycle
  10. Changes in the lower part of the earth's atmosphere in a localized area during a short period of time
    weather
  11. Certain patterns of weather which occur over a long period of time in a particular region
    climate
  12. The release of water from the atmosphere in the form of rain snow, or ice
    precipitation
  13. Height above sea level
    elevation
  14. The process whereby plants absorb water through their roots and transpire this moisture through their leaves into the atmosphere
    evapotranspiration
  15. Seasonal winds which bring rain in summer and dry weather in winter
    monsoon
  16. The way of life characteristic of a people
    culture
  17. A systemantic study of a nation's population
    census
  18. The art of making maps
    cartogrpahy
  19. A scale mode of the earth that shows the actual shapes, sizes, and locations of landmasses and bodies of water
    globe
  20. A flat representation of the earth or a portion of the earth
    map
  21. Numeral facts and figures compiled from data
    statistics
  22. Approximate, educated guesses based on observations
    estimates
  23. Pictorial illustrations of numerical data
    charts and graphs
  24. The landforms and bodies of water north of the equator
    Northern Hemisphere
  25. The landforms and bodies of water south of the equator
    Southern Hemisphere
  26. The landforms and bodies of water east of the prime meridian
    Eastern Hemisphere
  27. The landforms and bodies of water west of the prime meridian
    Western Hemisphere
  28. An early oceanographer who charted the ocean's currents and physical geography
    Matthew Maury
  29. A scientist who introduced a system of climatic classification
    Wladimir Koppen
  30. Name the seven continents
    Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, Australia,
  31. Name the four oceans
    Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic
  32. Name the six climate types and their subdivisions.
    • polar (icecap, tundra)
    • continental (subpolar, humid continental)
    • mild (marine west coast, humid subtropics, mediterranean)
    • tropical (savanna, rain forest)
    • dry (desert, steppe)
    • highland
    • STUDY p. 16 IN YOUR BOOK
  33. List renewable resources
    water, soil, air, trees, waterpower, geothermal energy, wind, solar energy
  34. List nonrenewable resources
    iron, bauxite ore, coal, oil, natural gas, uranium
  35. Name four important influences on culture.
    religion, language, government, and economic systems
  36. What is the main difference between an agrarian economy and an industrial economy?
    An agrarian economy derives most of its income from agriculture, while an industrial economy depends on the production of manufactured goods.
  37. What are two tools geographers use to collect data?
    direct observation and aerial photographs
  38. Map projection that is most accurate at the equator and most distorted at the poles; conformal map; distorts distance and size
    Mercator projection
  39. Map projection that is an equal area map; shows the correct size of landmasses in relation to other landmasses but distorts shape
    Mollweide projection
  40. The map projection where the lines of latitude and longitude almost intersect at right angles except near the edges; shows areas and distances with a high degree of accuracy
    Robinson projection
  41. Map projection that shows true compass directions; longitude lines are straight and latitude lines are circles; difficult to show direction and distorts shape and size more toward the opposite pole
    Azimuthal projection
  42. List four types of map symbols.
    title, scale, directional indicator, legend (key)
  43. Highland with broad, flat top and canyons cutting through it
    plateau
  44. At least 2,000 feet tall, with a peak and steep, sloping sides
    mountain
  45. Triangular-shaped landform where a river fans out into smaller streams before it reaches the ocean
    delta
  46. 500 to 2,000 feet tall, rounded top, usually no steep slopes
    hill
  47. Narrow strip of land
    isthumus
  48. Body surrounded by land
    lake
  49. Landform completely surrounded by water
    island
  50. Large artifiical lake
    reservoir
  51. Flat, rolling land with few changes in elevation
    plain
  52. Pool of underground water
    oasis
  53. Extension of the main body of land with water on three sides
    peninsula
  54. An extension of the ocean partly enclosed by land
    sea or gulf
  55. How much water covers the earth's surface?
    70%
  56. The idea that the earth and mankind developed by "accident" and evolved toward a better state over billions and billions of years.
    evolution
  57. Large bodies of land surrounded or nearly surrounded by water.
    continents
  58. The largest and deepest ocean
    Pacific
  59. The deepest point on earth located beneath the Pacific in a place called Challenger Deep
    Mariana Trench
  60. The warmest ocean
    Indian
  61. The smallest and most shallow ocean.
    Arctic
  62. Second largest ocean.
    Atlantic
  63. 0 degree latitude; starting point for measuring latitude
    equator
  64. 23 degree and 27 minutes north latitude
    Tropic of Cancer
  65. 23 degrees and 27 minutes south latitude
    Tropic of Capricorn
  66. 66 degrees and 33 minutes north latitude
    Arctic Circle
  67. 66 degrees and 33 minutes south latitude
    Antarctic Circle
  68. World's largest freshwater lake
    Lake Superior
  69. Climate zone that is warm all year and extends from the tropic of Cancer to the tropic of Capricorn and encompasses the equator.
    Torrid (or Tropical) Zone
  70. Climate zones that are cooler that the Torrid Zone, and have wide ranges of temperatures, and experience seasons.
    Temperate Zones
  71. The climate zone that contains the coldest climates on earth, with cool to subzero temperatures all year.
    Frigid (or Polar) Zones
  72. A warm current of water flowing northeasterly from the Gulf of Mexico to Europe, having a warming effect on Western Europe
    the Gulf Stream
  73. Great rotating storms or cyclones
    hurricanes
  74. Form of government ruled by God or through chosen representatives
    Theocracy
  75. A system of government headed by one ruler, such as a king or a queen.
    monarchy
  76. A system of government in which the ruler, usually a military leader, acquires power by some means other than inheritance and rules with absolute authority.
    dictatorship
  77. A system of government in which the people rule directly by popular vote
    direct democracy
  78. A system of government in which the people rule through elected representatives
    democratic republic
  79. A system of republican government in which people and their representative assembly are guided by the rule of the law ( a constitution)
    constitutional republic
  80. Economic system which allows individuals the freedom to follow their economic pursuits as they see fit
    free enterprise capitalism
  81. An economic system in which the government owns, or at least controls, a nation's resources and industries
    socialism
  82. Type of government ruled by one such as a monarchy or dictatorship
    autocracy
  83. Type of government ruled by the people such a direct democracy, democratic republic, and constitutional republic
    democracy

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