Managing Organizations - Chapter 11
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People who lead their groups, divisions, or departments based on their leadership skills, and not on formal authority or titles.
Individuals who lead their assigned groups, divisions, or departments by virtue of their position and title.
The difference between leadership and management
Leadership is part of management but not all of it.. Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it toward goals. Management activities such as planning, organizing, and decision making are dormant cocoons until the leader triggers the power of motivation in people and guides them towards goals
In the context of management theory, a person's ability to influence the activities of followers in an organizational setting. Management theory emphasizes that the leader must interact with his or her followers to be influential.
The ability to influence through communication the activities of others, individually or as a group, toward the accomplishment of worthwhile, meaningful, and challenging goals.
Influence strategies that are vital for practicing leadership
- Reason: Using facts and data to develop a logically sound argument
- Friendliness: Using supportiveness, praise, and creation of goodwill
- Coalition: Mobilizing others in the organization
- Bargaining: Negotiating through the use of benefits or favors
- Assertiveness: Using a direct and forceful approach
- Higher Authority: Gaining the support of higher levels in the hierarchy to add weight to the request.
- Sanctions: Using rewards and punishment
Noel M. Tichy
The ultimate test for a leader is not whether he or she makes smart decisions and takes decisive action, but whether he or she teaches others to be leaders and builds an organization that can sustain success even when he or she is not around.
Level Five Leadership
Good to Great author Jim Collins
Level Five leaders are individuals who usually have risen up within a particular industry and who lead primarily by example.
Trait Theory of Leadership
A theory that attempts to specify which personal characteristics (physical, personality, mental) are associated with leadership effectiveness. Trait theory relies on research that relates various traits to effectiveness criteria.
Behavioral Theory of Leadership
A theory that attributes performance differences to the behaviors and style of leaders.
Contingency Theory of Leadership
A theory that attributes performance differences to the leader's behavior and style in combination with situational factors.
Six categories of traits of leaders
- Physical Traits: age, height, weight
- Background Characteristics: education, social class or status, mobility, experience
- Intelligence: ability, judgment, knowledge
- Personality: aggressiveness, alertness, dominance, decisiveness, enthusiasm, extroversion, independence, self-confidence, authoritarianism.
- Task-related: achievement need, responsibility, initiative, persistence.
- Social: supervisory ability, cooperativeness, popularity, prestige, tact, diplomacy.
Max DePree's list of personality attributes of successful leadership
- Awareness of the human spirit
- Courage in relationships
- Sense of humor
- Intellectual energy and curiosity
- Respect for the future, regard for the present, understanding of the past
- Comfort with ambiguity
Five Steps to improving emotional intelligence skills
- Decide who you want to be
- Determine who you are now
- Develop a path from where you are to where you want to be
- Determine how to make changes permanent
- Find out who can help you get where you want to go
Charismatic leaders generate excitement and increase the expectations of followers through their visions of the future.
Behavior strategies used by charismatic leaders
- Focusing attention: on specific issues of concern, concentrating on analysis, problem solving, and action.
- Communicating: with empathy and sensitivity
- Demonstrating Consistency: and trustworthiness by one's behavior, being honest, sticking with a decision, and following through on decisions.
- Expressing active concern for people: including one's self, thus modeling self-regard, and reinforcing feelings of self-worth in others.
Five Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
- Strategic vision and articulation
- Sensitivity to the environment
- Unconventional behavior
- Personal risk
- Sensitivity to other's needs
Any observable response given by a person.
Two Key concepts of Two-Dimensional Theory
- Initiating structure: Leadership acts that develop job tasks and responsibilities for followers.
- Consideration: Behaviors by a leader that imply supportive concern for the followers in a group.
Managerial Grid Theory
A highly publicized leadership behavior model developed by Blank and Mouton that considers leaders as most effective when they achieve a high and balanced concern for both people and task.
Factors related to the problem
- The likelihood that one solution to the problem is more effective than another.
- The extent to which the leader has sufficient information to make a high-quality decision
- The extent to which alternative solutions are known with some certainty.
Factors related to subordinates
- The likelihood that effective implementation of the solution depends on subordinates accepting it as appropriate
- The likelihood that if the leader makes the decision, the subordinates will accept it
- The extent to which subordinates recognize and accept the organizational objectives to be attained by the solution
- The likelihood that conflict among subordinates will result if the preferred solution is adopted.
Life Cycle Theory
A theory of leadership that suggest that leaders must adjust their leadership style based on the maturity of those being led. In this case, "maturity" refers to the followers' ability to perform the assigned tasks.
Four Distinct Levels of Maturity
- M1: Person is unwilling or unable to perform the job
- M2: Person is unable but willing to perform the job
- M3: Person is able but unwilling to perform the job
- M4: Person is able and willing to perform the job
Hersey and Blanchard four leadership styles
- S1: Telling: the leader has to tell the employee what to do in great detail
- S2: Selling: The leader has to sell the employee on the value of the task
- S3: Participating: The leaders participates in the task with the employee
- S4: Delegating: The leader fully delegates the task to the employee
Fred E. Fiedler Three important situational factors that influence leader effectiveness.
- Leader-member relations: This refers to the degree of confidence the subordinates have in the leader. It also includes the loyalty shown to the leader and the leader's attractiveness.
- Task structure: This refers to the degree to which the subordinates' jobs are routine rather than nonroutine.
- Position power: This refers to the power inherent in the leadership position. It includes the rewards and punishments typically associated with the position, the leader's official authority (based on ranking in the managerial hierarchy), and the support that the leader receives from superiors and the overall organization.
Fiedler's LPC theory
A leadership theory that fits the leader to the situation; uses an instrument to identify the leader's least preferred coworker.
Also called "fit of the leader to the situation" approach
Role of the leader in House and Mitchell's path-goal leadership theory
- Clarify for the follower the path by which an individual can achieve personal goal and organizational outcomes
- Increase rewards that are valued by the follower.
Four types of Leader behaviors of House and Mitchell's path-goal theory
- Directive Behaviors: The leader makes task expectations clear by setting goals, structuring work flow, and providing feedback through regular performance appraisals. This is similar to the "initiating structure" behavior.
- Supportive Behaviors: The leader demonstrates concern for the worker and, when problems occur, is ready to offer advice. These behaviors are similar to the "consideration" behaviors.
- Participative Behaviors: The participative leader actively seeks ideas and information from workers. Participative behavior implies that workers participate in decisions that affect them and their work.
- Achievement Behaviors: Achievement leadership translates into setting expectations and task goals at a high level. This involves making the job challenging but not impossible to accomplish.
Stephen R. Covey's 7 habits of highly effective people
- Be Proactive: Being proactive means more than taking initiative - it means being responsible for your own life.
- Begin with the END in Mind: Begin each day iwth the image of the end of your life as your frame of reference or criterion by which everything else is examined.
- Put First Things First: This is the day-to-day enactment of the first two hapbits; it is the day-to-day and moment-to-moment task of effective self-management.
- Think Win/Win: Win/Win is a frame of mind that constantly seeks mutual benefit in all human interactions.
- Seek First to Understand, then to be understood: In order to effectively interact with other people, you must first listen to and understand them.
- Synergize: This term refers to the concept of "creative cooperation"- the effort to make more out of social relationships that appears to be available.
- Sharpen the Saw: This habit refers to the need to rejuvenate and revitalize on a regular basis.
an inspirational form of leader behavior based on modifying followers' beliefs, values, and ultimately their behavior.
Contrast is the Transactional leader.
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