Anatomy Ch2

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Anatomy Ch2
2014-09-02 20:24:07

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  1. 3 components of the sternum:
    manubrium sterni, the corpus, and xiphoid process
  2. the clavicle and first rib are attached to the _____
    manubrium sterni
  3. the second rib articulates at the juncture of the ___ and ____ also know as the _____ ____
    manubrium and corpus, manubrosternal angle
  4. ribs 3-7 articulate directly with the ___
  5. ribz 8,9, and 10 are attached by means of
    indirect costal cartilage
  6. flexible tube composed of a series of 16-20 hyaline cartilage rings that bifurcates to become the left and right mainstem bronchi
  7. right lung is composed of ___ lobes
  8. the left lung only has __ lobes
  9. Lungs are completely covered by a pleural lining
    visceral and parietal pleura
  10. The heart is encased in the _____ pleurae
  11. left and right phrenic nerves serving the diaphragm pass along the lateral surfaces of the ____ to innervate the diaphragm
  12. The diaphragm attaches along the ____ boundary of the rib cage and ____ process, and to the ___ ____ in the posterior
    inferior, xiphoid, vertebral column
  13. the ____ ____ muscles are among the most significant respiratory muscles for speech. They provide a significant proportion of the ____ ____ _____. They also perform functions that are uniquely ____ related
    external intercostal, total respiratory capacity, speech
  14. the external intercostal muscles originate on the ____ surface of each rib
  15. external intercostal muscles provide the _____ slant of the rib cage
  16. the internal intercostal muscles are predominantly muscles of ____
  17. the parasternal portion of the internal intercostal muscles encompassing the chondral aspect of the ribs is active during ____ inspiration
  18. because the external intercostal muscles elevate the ribcage in a way that the sternum can remain parallel to the vertebral column, it nets in an ____ in the volume of the lungs
  19. ____ expiration requires muscles to act on the lungs indirectly to "squeeze" the air out of them
  20. -The ____ portion of the internal intercostal muscles is a significant contributor to forced expiration
  21. internal intercostal muscles help ___ the rib cage
  22. The transversus thoracis muscles are found on the ____  _____ of the rib cage
    inner surface
  23. During quiet respiration (quiet tidal respiration), adults complete between __ and __ cycles of respiration per minute
    12 and 18
  24. quiet tidal breathing involves about ___ ml of air with each cycle
  25. as work output increases, an adult increases his or her oxygen requirements up to a factor of ___
  26. 5 specific pressures for nonspeech and speech
    alveolar, intrapleural, subglottal, intraoral, and atmospheric
  27. Both intraoral and subglottal pressure is assumed to be equal to ___ pressure during normal respiration
  28. the pressure of the individual alveolus
    alveolar or pulmonary pressure
  29. measuring the space between parietal and visceral pleurae
    intrapleural pressure
  30. intrapleural pressure is _____ throughout respiration
  31. all pressure measurements are relative to _____ pressure
  32. ___ refers to the space between the vocal folds
  33. closing the vocal folds causes an immediate ____ in the subglottal air pressure as the lungs continue expiration
  34. closing the vocal folds causes the intraoral pressure to ____ to near atmospheric level. This results in a big pressure different between the ____ (area above the vocal folds) and the subglottal regions
  35. If the increase in pressure resulting from closing the vocal folds exceeds ___ to ___ cm H20, the vocal folds will be blown open and ____ will begin. This critical pressure is the __ ___ for speech
    3 to 5, voicing; minimal requirement
  36. Because of remaining air in the lungs, you can actively inhale ___ of your total capacity
  37. Relaxing musculature after inspiration results in a positive alveolar pressure that ____ as volume approaches resting lung volume
  38. When one is sitting upright, gravity supports both ___ and ____, by pulling the abdominal viscera down as well as pulling the ribcage down
    inspiration and expiration
  39. laying ____ results in it being harder to breathe because gravity spreads the viscera toward the thorax
  40. When supine, _____ capacity is not affected, but the ability to completely ____ the lungs is
    vital, inflate
  41. In supine mode, the lung volume drops from about 38% of vital capacity to ____
  42. conversational speech requires about ___ to ___ cm H20
  43. during normal respiration, inhalation takes up approximately ___ or the cycle and expiration takes up about __
    40%, 60%
  44. when speaking, instead of letting air flow out through total relaxation we let it out ____ with our muscles to ____ airfloe
    slowly, restrict
  45. the parallel to checking action, trying to push out the 38% of air volume left for speech is called speaking on ___ ___
    expiratory reserve