Organic Chem CH.10 unit 1
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Organic Chem CH.10 unit 1
unit organic chem 230 fall 2014
organic chem chapter 10 powerpoint
a compound made from carbon atoms
has one of more C atoms, has many H atoms and may also contain O, S, N and halogens
organic chemistry is also known as the
chemistry of carbon
typical organic compounds have?
low melting points
low boiling points
are soluble in nonpolar solvents
are not soluble in water
wimpy London dispersion forces
why is propane organic?
because it only has carbon and hydrogen
wht is NaCl inorganic?
because it has a metal and a halogen
bonding? organic vs inorganic
polarity of bonds? organic vs inorganic
more are ionic or polar covalent
melting point? organic vs inorganic
boiling point? organic vs inorganic
flammability? organic vs inorganic
solubility in water? organic vs inorganic
not soluble unless a polar group is present
most are soluble, unless nonpolar
in organic compounds, carbon has ___ valence electrons and hydrogen has ____
methane is represented by?
carbon always wants 8 electrons... 4 things to make a tetrahedral shape
what types of bonds form between carbon atoms?
ethane is represented by?
expanded version of alkanes?
shows each bond
condensed version of alkanes?
show each carbon atom and its attached hydrogen atoms
ex of alkanes condensed form?
propane is represented by?
butane is represented by?
Mother eats peanut butteR?
written for expanded structural formula by showing each carbon and the attached hydrogen atoms
a saturated compound has?
no double bonds
carbons preferred shape?
an alkane with six carbon atoms in a continuous chain
condensed formula has no?
hook back to themselves and has two hydrogen atoms fewer than the open chain
differ only in rotation about carbon-carbon single bonds
most stable form ?
have the same molecular formula and different atom arrangements
isomers of butane are?
a straight chain and a branched chain
alkanes that are missing one H
alkyl groups have substituents attached to ?
carbon chains and named with a -yl ending
methane on branch known as?
ethane on branch known as?
a carbon branch is named as an
halogen atoms are named as
all _______ chain alkyl groups are 1
what alkyls are 2
primary alkyl group
1 carbon attached
secondary alkyl group
2 carbons attached
tertiary alkyl group
3 carbons attached
if added at branch point, known as
longest chain means?
most amount of carbons, doesn't matter shape
when numbering alkanes, number them?
closest to first branch
insoluble in water
less dense than water
flammable in air
properties of alkanes?
gases at room temp
used as heating fuels
alkanes with 5-8 carbons atoms are
liquid at room temp
used to make gas
alkanes with 9-17 carbon atoms are
liquids at room temp
have higher boiling points
found in kerosene, diesel and jet fuels
alkanes with 18 or more carbons?
have high molar masses
waxy solids at room temp
these are used in waxy coatings of fruits and vegetables
alkanes with 18 or more carbons
what happens in combustion reactions?
alkanes react with oxygen
what is produced in a combustion reaction with alkanes and oxygen?
CO2, H20 and energy
Alkane + O2 -->
CO2 + H20 + heat
a type of substitution reaction, a reaction that results in a replacement of one group for another
products of a halogenation reaction?
what reaction is important to converting unreactive alkanes into many starting materials for other products
these only occur in the presence of heat and/or light (UV)
if an alkane is by itself, then?
it is not very reactive
if heat or light is involved then it is a?
in organic molecules, carbon atoms bond:
with 4 bonds
mostly H and C
sometimes to O, N, S,F, Cl, Br
a characteristic feature or organic molecules that behave in a predictable way
functional groups are composed of
an atom or a group of atoms
contain a double bond between adjacent carbon atoms
contain a triple bond
point where things react
contains the hydroxyl (OH) functional group
an oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon atoms
contains a carbonyl group which is a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom
the carbon of the carbonyl group is attached to two other carbon atoms
contains the carboxyl group between carbon atoms
the hydroxyl group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a nitrogen group
nylon is an?
alcohol functional group?