Organic Chem CH.10 unit 1

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Organic Chem CH.10 unit 1
2014-09-09 15:49:27
unit organic chem 230 fall 2014

organic chem chapter 10 powerpoint
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  1. a compound made from carbon atoms
    organic compound
  2. has one of more C atoms, has many H atoms and may also contain O, S, N and halogens
    organic compound
  3. organic chemistry is also known as the
    chemistry of carbon
  4. typical organic compounds have?
    • covalent bonds
    • low melting points
    • low boiling points
    • are flammable
    • are soluble in nonpolar solvents
    • are not soluble in water
  5. nonpolar means?
    wimpy London dispersion forces
  6. why is propane organic?
    because it only has carbon and hydrogen
  7. wht is NaCl inorganic?
    because it has a metal and a halogen
  8. bonding? organic vs inorganic
    • covalent
    • ionic
  9. polarity of bonds? organic vs inorganic
    • nonpolar
    • more are ionic or polar covalent
  10. melting point? organic vs inorganic
    • low
    • high
  11. boiling point? organic vs inorganic
    • low
    • high
  12. flammability? organic vs inorganic
    • high
    • low
  13. solubility in water? organic vs inorganic
    • not soluble unless a polar group is present
    • most are soluble, unless nonpolar
  14. in organic compounds, carbon has ___ valence electrons and hydrogen has ____
    • 4
    • 1
  15. methane is represented by?
  16. VSEPR theory?
    carbon always wants 8 electrons... 4 things to make a tetrahedral shape
  17. what types of bonds form between carbon atoms?
  18. ethane is represented by?
  19. expanded version of alkanes?
    shows each bond
  20. condensed version of alkanes?
    show each carbon atom and its attached hydrogen atoms
  21. ex of alkanes condensed form?
    CH4 , methane
  22. propane is represented by?
  23. butane is represented by?
  24. Mother eats peanut butteR?
    • methane
    • ethane
    • propane
    • butane
  25. written for expanded structural formula by showing each carbon and the attached hydrogen atoms
    condensed formula
  26. a saturated compound has?
    no double bonds
  27. pentane?
  28. carbons preferred shape?
  29. an alkane with six carbon atoms in a continuous chain
  30. condensed formula has no?
  31. hook back to themselves and has two hydrogen atoms fewer than the open chain
  32. differ only in rotation about carbon-carbon single bonds
  33. most stable form ?
    chair form
  34. n-___ means?
    straight chain
  35. have the same molecular formula and different atom arrangements
  36. isomers of butane are?
    a straight chain and a branched chain
  37. alkanes that are missing one H
    alkyl groups
  38. alkyl groups have substituents attached to ?
    carbon chains and named with a -yl ending
  39. methane on branch known as?
  40. ethane on branch known as?
  41. a carbon branch is named as an
    alkyl group
  42. halogen atoms are named as
  43. all _______ chain alkyl groups are 10
  44. what alkyls are 20 groups?
    • isopropyl
    • sec-butyl
  45. primary alkyl group
    1 carbon attached
  46. secondary alkyl group
    2 carbons attached
  47. tertiary alkyl group
    3 carbons attached
  48. if added at branch point, known as
  49. longest chain means?
    most amount of carbons, doesn't matter shape
  50. when numbering alkanes, number them?
    closest to first branch
  51. alkanes are?
    • nonpolar
    • insoluble in water
    • less dense than water
    • flammable in air
  52. properties of alkanes?
    • gases at room temp
    • used as heating fuels
  53. alkanes with 5-8 carbons atoms are
    • liquid at room temp
    • very volatile
    • used to make gas
  54. alkanes with 9-17 carbon atoms are
    • liquids at room temp
    • have higher boiling points
    • found in kerosene, diesel and jet fuels
  55. alkanes with 18 or more carbons?
    • have high molar masses
    • waxy solids at room temp
  56. these are used in waxy coatings of fruits and vegetables
    alkanes with 18 or more carbons
  57. what happens in combustion reactions?
    alkanes react with oxygen
  58. what is produced in a combustion reaction with alkanes and oxygen?
    CO2, H20 and energy
  59. Alkane + O2 -->
    CO2 + H20 + heat
  60. burning reaction
  61. a type of substitution reaction, a reaction that results in a replacement of one group for another
  62. products of a halogenation reaction?
    • haloalkane
    • hydrogen halide
  63. what reaction is important to converting unreactive alkanes into many starting materials for other products
  64. these only occur in the presence of heat and/or light (UV)
  65. if an alkane is by itself, then?
    it is not very reactive
  66. if heat or light is involved then it is a?
    substitution reaction
  67. in organic molecules, carbon atoms bond:
    • with 4 bonds
    • mostly H and C
    • sometimes to O, N, S,F, Cl, Br
  68. a characteristic feature or organic molecules that behave in a predictable way
    functional groups
  69. functional groups are composed of
    an atom or a group of atoms
  70. contain a double bond between adjacent carbon atoms
  71. contain a triple bond
  72. point where things react
  73. contains the hydroxyl (OH) functional group
  74. an oxygen atom is bonded to two carbon atoms
  75. contains a carbonyl group which is a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom
  76. the carbon of the carbonyl group is attached to two other carbon atoms
  77. contains the carboxyl group between carbon atoms
  78. ester makes
  79. the hydroxyl group of a carboxylic acid is replaced by a nitrogen group
  80. nylon is an?
  81. alcohol functional group?