Study of the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs of the body that cause or are caused by disease
study of abnormal function, and both preventative and therapeutic care
What is disease?
an interruption, cessation, or disorder in the function of cells, tissues, organs, or organ systems
Name the 6 recognized etiologic causes of disease (BPCMMI):
Biological, physical forces, chemical agents, molecular, multifactorical, idiopathic
Example of Biologic agents:
bacteria, viruses, protistan or parasitic worms
Example of physical forces that cause disease:
burns, being crushed, radiation
Chemical agents that cause disease:
poison, toxins, etc
Name an example of a molecular cause of disease:
What does idiopathic mean?
etiologic agent is UNKNOWN
Disease is characterized by _____ _____ , an identifiable group of _______ and ______, and/or consistant ______ ______.
signs and symptoms
Increased HR, fever, weight gain/loss
unobservable effects of a disease reported by the patient
Pain, difficulty breathing, dizziness
characteristic combination of signs/symptoms that are associated with a particular disease
Another way that disease can be characterized is by timing. What are the two terms used to characterize the timing of a disease?
Congenital- present at birth (may not become evident until later in life)
Acquired-caused by events after birth
Complications are defined as:
possible adverse extensions or a disease or outcomes from treatment
What is Sequelae?
lesions or impairments that follow or are caused by a disease
method to identify the nature and cause of a health problem
The diagnostic process involves the following 6 steps:
Consider clinical probabilities and determine most likely based on PT characteristics
Lab tests or confirm or rule out various diagnoses
Interpreting of lab tests
Initiate therapy and evaluate response
The onset of a disease can be either ____ or _____.
Sudden or insidious
Give the conditions associated with acute disease
rapid onset, develop quickly, relatively sever, short duration, self-limiting
Sub-acute diseases fall in between ?
Chronic and acute
Chronic conditions are:
constant, long term, develop slowly, long duration
Give the 5 stages common to infectious diseases (PSCPC):
Pre-clinical stage: no measurable signs
Sub-clinical stage: no measurable signs, not destined to progress to clinical stage
Clinical stage: measurable signs and symptoms
Persistent stage: chronic stage
Carrier stage: transferable but shows no signs or symptoms
Explain the difference between the pre-clinical and sub-clinical stage or infectious disease:
Both pre-clinical and sub-clinical stages show no measurable signs of disease, but the pre-clinical disease will eventually progress to the observable clinical stage whereas the sub-clinical stage will not.
subject to death
the incidence of disease
treatment of disease to cure or reduce patient signs and symptoms
probably outcome and prospect of recovery from disease; prediction of a patient's survival based on a particular therapy